Wishing All The Best For The Coming Christmas And New Year 2023 Festive Season

BREAKING NEWS
COVID-19 News - United States - United Kingdom  Dec 09, 2022  4 hours ago
COVID-19 News: Despite the sadness in seeing fellow humans suffer and die, we cannot help it and laugh and feel that they deserve it especially when some of these lower-life forms from the West keep on insisting stupidly that COVID-19 is over or that it is now mild or that that it is now endemic and we must learn to live with it or that there is no need for masking or taking safety precautions etc...
COVID-19 News - Australia Excess Death Rates  Dec 08, 2022  19 hours ago
COVID-19 News: The Australian Bureau of Statistics last month released the latest mortality data that alarmingly showed that there had been 128,797 deaths from January 1 to August 31, which was 17 per cent higher than the historical average. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/causes-death/provisional-mortality-statistics/latest-release   The data reflects an extra 18,671 deaths just f...
Virus News - Alongshan Virus (ALSV)  Dec 08, 2022  1 day ago
Virus News: Researchers from the Institute of Virology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland have issued warnings about the discovery of the novel Alongshan Virus (ALSV) in ticks in Switzerland with possible implications that the virus could be now widespread not only in Switzerland but in many parts of Europe!   The Alongshan virus (ALSV) is a member of the unclassi...
Source: COVID-19 Drugs - Diabetics - SGLT-2 Inhibitors  Dec 08, 2022  1 day ago
COVID-19 Drugs: A new study by researchers from Fujian Medical University -China, Fujian Provincial Hospital-China and Fujian Academy of Medical Sciences-China has found that diabetics taking SGLT-2i drugs like canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin prior to contracting COVID-19 have reduced adverse outcomes. SGLT2i or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are a class of prescription...
Medications-Drugs - Midazolam - Heart Injury - Chronotherapy  Dec 07, 2022  2 days ago
Medications - Drugs: A study by researchers from the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado-United States has found that the usage of the sedative midazolam at night increases risk of myocardial injury and heart damage! https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/Benzodiazepenes-2020_1.pdf   Midazolam, sold under the brand name Verse...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 - Visceral Adipocytes  Dec 07, 2022  2 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new study by researchers from University of Campinas-Brazil (UNICAMP) and Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo-Brazil (USP) has found that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has a greater affinity for visceral adipocytes compared to subcutaneous adipocytes, replicating faster and causing higher viral loads which in turn increases the various inflammatory triggers...
Medical News - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  Dec 06, 2022  3 days ago
A new study by researchers rom Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg-Germany, HHV-6 Foundation-United States and the Ohio State University-United States has found that reactivation of dormant HHV-6 and EBV viruses is associated with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).   The study findings also have implications in the aspect that many Long -COVID-19 patients...
U.S. Medical News - Cardiovascular Excess Deaths During COVID-19 Pandemic  Dec 06, 2022  3 days ago
U.S. Medical News: While many governments and health authorities around the world are trying to conceal the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and also its future impacts, it is becoming more apparently day by day what the debut of this new novel coronavirus is doing in terms of its ability to decrease the global population and also cause a major health crisis in the future in with regards to th...
COVID-19 News - Disease Severity Among Children In Japan  Dec 05, 2022  4 days ago
COVID-19 News: Japanese researchers are warning that the current SARS-CoV-2 variants and sub-lineages circulating in the country are causing more disease severity in children with many even going through cardiac arrest!   Besides disease severity and cardiac issues, many are also acute encephalopathy.   A large proportion of infected children are ending up in the ICU wards with many mo...
COVID-19 News - Glasses Protect Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection  Dec 05, 2022  4 days ago
COVID-19 News:  A randomized clinical study led by researchers from Norway showed that wearing glasses reduces risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infections, although very minutely.   The study comprised of researchers from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health - Norway, Oslo Metropolitan University - Norway, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health - Norway, University Hospital Basel -...
COVID-19 News - Brain Aging In Adolescents  Dec 05, 2022  4 days ago
COVID-19 News: New worrying study findings show that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing the brains of adolescents to age rapidly!   The study was conducted by researchers from the Department of Psychology, Stanford University-USA.   The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant stress and disruption for young individuals, likely leading to alterations in their mental healt...
COVID-19 News - Immunologists Superspreader Event  Dec 05, 2022  4 days ago
COVID-19 News: The online medical community is in a state of frenzy after various participants attending an unmasked Immunology Conference in Melbourne starting testing positive for COVID-19 and many developing a wide array of symptoms.   Despite the seriousness of the matter as many lives are at stake, it is still hilarious and ironical when we see that many prominent immunologists from ar...
COVID-19 News - New Onset Diabetes In Long COVID  Dec 04, 2022  5 days ago
COVID-19 News: A prominent and distinguished Long COVID researcher, Dr Ziyad Al-Aly from the Clinical Epidemiology Center, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, Missouri-USA and also the Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri-USA has warned that otherwise previously health individuals, irrespective if they were vaccinated or unvaccinated with the various COVID-19 ...
COVID-19 News - Immunity Debt versus COVID-19 Induced Immunodeficiency  Dec 04, 2022  5 days ago
COVID-19 News: Off late, there is much talk online about so called “Immunity Debt” leading to primarily children and also some adults contracting other pathogenic infections especially respiratory viral illnesses like influenza, RSV, Adenovirus and even other disease like measles, chicken pox etc.   The charlatans behind the concept of “Immunity Debt” claim lockdowns...
COVID-19 News - Infections and Hospitalizations Rising  Dec 03, 2022  6 days ago
COVID-19 News: While the Western governments and their paid mainstream media are more concerned about meddling in China’s Zero COVID policies and instigating mobs and protests among the stupids in the country, COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations are rising in their own countries along with a whole string of other pathogenic infections including RSV infections Adenovirus infections, Infl...
Health News - Haemophilus Influenza Type B (Hib) Outbreak In Canada  Dec 03, 2022  6 days ago
Health News: Island Health also known as the Vancouver Island Health Authority, ie the publicly funded health care provider in the southwestern portion of the Canadian province of British Columbia has issued a warning about the outbreak of Haemophilus Influenza Type B (Hib) Disease in parts of Canada. https://www.islandhealth.ca/sites/default/files/mho/newsletter/mho-newsletter-hib-outbreak.pdf &n...
Medical News - Strep A Outbreak In UK  Dec 03, 2022  6 days ago
While COVID-19 Infections, Influenza and also RSV infections are plaguing the United Kingdom and children this time are the ones being badly infected, another worrying disease outbreak has been reported in the country.   British health officials issued a warning in the last 24 hours about the outbreak of a more serious Group A strep-related illness among children and youngsters after six ch...
COVID-19 News - New BA.5.7 and BM.2 Sub-lineages in Australia  Dec 02, 2022  7 days ago
COVID-19 News: According to the latest United Kingdom technical briefing on SARS-CoV-2 variants, an international alert has been raised about the identification of new BA.5.7 and BM.2 sub-lineages spotting a variety of mutations!   According to the report, concerns were raised on a cluster of BA.5.7 sequences from Australia, due to more nucleotide synonymous transition mutations (purine to ...
Herbal Medicine - Green Tea - EGCG  Dec 02, 2022  7 days ago
Herbal Medicine: There is a common fallacy that herbs and traditional medicine involving only plants and phytochemicals are basically harmless and safe and hence one should not worry about consuming them. In reality, many herbs and phytochemicals if used wrongly can actually not only exacerbate conditions that they are used to treat but also give rise to other medical conditions and in some cases ...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 Viral Persistence  Dec 02, 2022  7 days ago
COVID News: A new study conducted by researchers from Weill Cornell Medicine, New York - USA has found SARS-CoV-2 viral presence in the lung up to 359 days after acute phase of disease, even in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swab tests!   The study findings validate that SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence is a major health issues that needs to be addressed immediately as it is not only a c...
HIV News -Long Lasting PrEP Injectables  Dec 01, 2022  8 days ago
HIV News: A new injectable PrEP to combat HIV infections and can last for two months has entered the market but unfortunately the cost of the drug was deliberately aimed at HISO sluts and upmarket prostitutes as it cost about US$3,800 per dose or over US$22,000 per person per year in the United States!   The new injectable PrEP called CAB-LA or cabotegravir-long acting was developed and pat...
COVID-19 News - Bebtelovimab  Dec 01, 2022  8 days ago
COVID-19 News: The U.S. FDA issued an announcement in the last 24 hours stating that Bebtelovimab is not currently authorized in any U.S. region to treat COVID-19.   According to the announcement, the predominant variants in circulation that includes the BQ.1 and BQ.1.1 variants ad sub-lineages can no longer be neutralized by the monoclonal antibody drug Bebtelovimab that is made by ph...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 Binds With Estrogen Receptors  Dec 01, 2022  8 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new study funded by the U.S. NIH has found that the spike proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus also binds to estrogen receptors (Erα and Erβ) and modulates them. The study findings suggest that, given the role of ERα in the coagulation cascade, S-protein could increase the pro-coagulation activity of endothelial cells leading to an enhanced risk of thrombosis.  ...
COVID-19 News -SARS-CoV-2 Dysregulates Endocrine Genes  Nov 30, 2022  9 days ago
COVID-19 News: Disturbing findings from a study conducted by Italian researchers reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causes transcriptional alterations of endocrine-specific genes leading to a variety of endocrine issues as result of many of these genes being dysregulated while some are upregulated or downregulated compared to normal healthy settings.   The study team comprised of Italia...
COVID-19 News - Molnupiravir  Nov 30, 2022  9 days ago
COVID-19 News: When Thailand Medical News in September 2021 warned about the dangers of the US FDA approved drug Molnupiravir to treat COVID-19, our news coverage was not taken seriously as most Westerners always think that only the media in their own countries that is funded by crooked politicians, unethical billionaires, greedy pharma giants and those controlling the COVID-19 narratives are the ...
HIV News - Heart Issues And HIV  Nov 29, 2022  10 days ago
HIV News: A new study review led by researchers from Kings College London British Heart Foundation Centre, School of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine & Sciences -UK has found that HIV infections increase risk of cardiovascular issues!   The study team warned that HIV-associated cardiovascular disease is increasing in prevalence, but its mechanisms remain poorly understood.   T...
Cancer News -Anal Cancer - United States  Nov 29, 2022  10 days ago
Cancer News: A new study led by researchers from the Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina – USA has found that the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), a type of anal cancer is rising in the United States especially in the Midwestern and Southeastern States, including South Carolina.   The study findings also indicated that most anal cancers...
Medical News - COVID-19 Mortality  Nov 29, 2022  10 days ago
In the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was seen that it was mostly the aged that were at a higher risk of mortality upon contracting the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Hence many of the elderly perished in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 especially in the United States and Europe.   Now, a new study by researchers from Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts-USA is showing the mortalit...
COVID-19 News - D-Alanine Supplements Prevents COVID-19 Severity  Nov 29, 2022  10 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new breakthrough study by researchers from the National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN)-Japan and the Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine – Japan has found that supplementation with the amino acid D-Alanine can help prevent and also treat COVID-19 severity. The study besides finding the critical role that D-Amino acids play in vir...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 Induced Silent Stroke  Nov 28, 2022  11 days ago
COVID-19 News: New emerging reports from various physicians around the world are reporting that the incidence of ‘silent strokes’ is greatly rising and the worse is that many who have been affected are not even aware of it or about the damage that these ‘silent strokes’ causes to their brains and other parts of their bodies.   The growing incidence to such silent str...
COVID-19 News - CH.1.1 with P681R Mutation SARS-CoV-2 Lineage  Nov 27, 2022  12 days ago
COVID-19 News: Researchers and virologist are extremely concerned about the emergence of a new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sub-lineage CH.1.1 spotting Delta’s P681R mutation in Austria.   There is no data on where this strain emerged but to date it has been seen in 12 samples that were sent for genomic sequencing in patients hospitalized in Vorarlberg-Austria.   The CH.1.1 variant is a BA...
COVID-19 News - Lethal Variants  Nov 27, 2022  12 days ago
COVID-19 News: International researchers led by the Sigal lab in Durban-South Africa are warning that contrary to the fallacy that is being disseminated by many so called ‘experts’, mainstream media, COVID-19 News outlets and health authorities that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is evolving to be more milder, the next variants to emerge are likely to be more lethal and worrisome based on ...
COVID-19 News - soluble HLA and SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Immunity  Nov 26, 2022  13 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new study by researchers from the University of Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen - Germany has found that inflammation-driven release of soluble HLA (sHLA) in COVID-19 influences immunopeptidome diversity and T cell immunity!   Human leukocyte antigen or HLA-presented antigenic peptides are central components of T cell-based immunity in infectiou...
HIV News - SMC5/6  Nov 26, 2022  13 days ago
HIV News: A new study by researcher from Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina – USA have found that a protein complex called SMC5/6 allows HIV to evade antivirals and immunity.   To date, it is already known that after viral entry and reverse transcription, HIV-1 proviruses that fail to integrate are epigenetically silenced, but the underlying mechanism has remained ...
Source: COVID-19 Research - ORF3c - Mitochondria  Nov 26, 2022  13 days ago
COVID-19 Research: A new international led by researchers from University of Cambridge - UK has found that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3c protein localizes to mitochondria, inhibiting innate immunity by restricting IFN-Β production!   The study also involved scientists from University of Manchester - UK, University Medical Center Göttingen - Germany, University of Liverpool, University of B...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 Induced Isolated Diastolic Hypertension -IDH  Nov 26, 2022  13 days ago
COVID-19 News: In the last few months, based on data that we have been collating from various Long COVID clinics and also small research groups involved in Post COVID medical issues, it has been found that many post-COVID patients tend to be displaying a unique condition that is termed as Isolated Diastolic Hypertension or IDH.   Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is defined as diastolic...
Pharma News - Ibuprofen - Naproxen  Nov 25, 2022  14 days ago
Pharma News: A new study lead by researchers from the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco- USA have found that the usage of pain relievers like Ibuprofen and Naproxen actually worsens arthritis inflammation.   The study team warns that the use of NSAIDS such as ibuprofen and naproxen might not have the desired effect patients are see...
COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-3  Nov 25, 2022  14 days ago
COVID-19 News: Chinese researchers from Sun Yat-Sen University, Fudan University, Yunnan Institute of Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Yunnan University, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention-Beijing, City University of Hong Kong along with Australian scientists from University of Sydney have discovered a recombinant strain of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses in bats ...
COVID-19 News - BR.2.1 - XBF  Nov 24, 2022  15 days ago
COVID-19 News: Scientist are predicting that the new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant called BR.2.1 and also a new recombinant variant XBF is expected to be become dominant in circulation sometime midway in the winter surge and will join other newly emerging variants in creating non-stop COVID-19 surges globally.   The BR.2.1 variant is part of the BA.2.75 lineage and spots 3 extra spike mutation...
Source: COVID-19 News  Nov 24, 2022  15 days ago
COVID-19 News: SARS-CoV-2 Infections are typically associated with abnormalities in blood coagulation in severe cases and even in those with mild infections, clotting issues that causes strokes seems to be a lingering issue in Long COVID.   The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been detected in the blood samples collected from COVID-19 patients. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33413461/   Though de...
Medical News - Ectonucleotidases And COVID-19 Severity  Nov 24, 2022  15 days ago
Researchers from Brazil have discovered a new mechanism that contributes to COVID-19 disease severity. According to the study team lead by scientists from the University of São Paulo Medical School, unmetabolized ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a key source of energy for cellular processes causes the dysregulation of the immune system leading to cytokine storms that contributes to the di...
Pharma News - Paxlovid  Nov 23, 2022  16 days ago
Pharma News: A new study by Italian researchers has shockingly found that Nirmatrelvir which is a key component of the drug Paxlovid that is being peddled by American and British medical ‘experts’ to treat COVID-19 actually blunts the development of antiviral adaptive immune responses in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2!   According to the study team, this might help explain the vi...
HIV News - Chronic Inflammation  Nov 23, 2022  16 days ago
HIV News: A new study by researchers from The George Washington University - USA, University of Melbourne - Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston – USA have found that a HIV protein called Nef causes permanent changes to immune cells, leading to chronic inflammation and associated co-morbidities including cardiovascular issues.   According to the...
COVID-19 News - Pediatric Ischemic Stroke  Nov 23, 2022  16 days ago
COVID-19 News: Study findings from a new research conducted by medical scientists from the University of Utah School of Medicine alarmingly shows that prior COVID-19 infections increase the risk of strokes in children. The study also found that even children who were asymptomatic upon infections with the SARS-CoV-2 virus were still at risk of developing strokes! It should be noted that stroke mani...
COVID-19 News - Ultrasound To Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus  Nov 22, 2022  17 days ago
COVID-19 News: Researchers from University of Sao Paulo - Brazil have in a new study demonstrated that inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro infectivity, adding more published evidence to validate previous research data that shows ultrasound vibrations may kill coronaviruses including the SARS-CoV-2.   As early as May 2021, researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology published study findi...
Long COVID News - Persistent Interferon Gamma Release   Nov 22, 2022  17 days ago
Long COVID News: A new study by researchers from University of Cambridge - UK, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust - UK, Cambridge National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) - UK, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research - UK and Addenbrooke's Hospital – UK has found that most individuals with Long COVID tend to have persistent T-cell dependent Interferon Gamma (IFN-&g...
COVID News - SARS-CoV-2 BW.1 Variant  Nov 22, 2022  17 days ago
COVID News: Scientists from the Instituto de Biotecnología - Mexico, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and MIVEGEC, Université de Montpellier, IRD, CNRS are warning that a new SARS-CoV-2 variant called BW.1 is spreading rapidly in Mexico and is likely to spread across to the United States, Canada and also elsewhere due to ...
Source: Medical News - New RSV Variants  Nov 21, 2022  18 days ago
In early November, Thailand Medical News had called for various international research teams to look into the possibility of new respiratory syncytial virus or RSV variants emerging that could be causing anomalous manifestations in the current RSV surge that is affecting many countries globally especially the United States as there has not been any studies done in the last two years since the emer...
COVID-19 - News - Gut Microbiome - Disease Progression  Nov 20, 2022  19 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new study by researchers from the Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia – Spain has found that gut microbiome composition and function play a role in COVID-19 disease progression.   Despite SARS-CoV-2 mainly affecting the respiratory system, it has been found that the gastrointestinal tract is also a ta...
COVID-19 News - Interferon Lambda  Nov 19, 2022  20 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new breakthrough study by Canadian researchers from the University of Manitoba, University of Toronto, Canada University Health Network and University of Alberta, Edmonton has found that treating SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with interferon Lambda helps in rapid clearance of the virus even in those with age-related delays in the induction of T cell immunity!   This new t...
Source: COVID-19 News - Inhalable Sodium Bicarbonate As An Adjuvant For COVID-19   Nov 19, 2022  20 days ago
COVID-19 News: A randomized clinical trial conducted by researchers from the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University - Egypt has found that inhalable sodium bicarbonate could be used as adjuvant in COVID-19 prophylactic and treatment protocols!   Most COVID-19 News outlets have not been covering on the various clinical trials involving cheaper repurposed drugs or compounds that can be used...
Source: COVID-19 News - Cats - SARS-CoV-2  Nov 19, 2022  20 days ago
COVID-19 News: Researchers from MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research - Scotland and the School of Biodiversity at the University of Glasgow – Scotland are warning based on their study findings that domestic cats are increasing contracting circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants from human and that they could end up being viral reservoirs that can also lead to the emergence of more wor...
Source: COVID-19 Drugs - Metformin  Nov 18, 2022  21 days ago
COVID-19 Drugs: Study findings from yet another research led by scientists from the University of Minnesota Medical School has added to the growing evidence that metformin, a common and cheap generic diabetic drug is able to decrease the risk of COVID-19 severity.   Thailand Medical News had previously covered on various past studies that showed metformin not only reduced the risk of COVID-...
Source: COVID-19 News - SARS-CoV-2 Variant Soup  Nov 18, 2022  21 days ago
COVID-19 News: While governments and health authorities along with paid mainstream media around the world try to downplay rising COVID-19 infections and the seriousness and dangers of Long COVID-19, the good news is that as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants and sub-lineages along with many new recombinant variants evolving rapidly to fight both natural and vaccine or drug induced immunit...
Source: COVID-19 News - Cyclodextrins - SARS-CoV-2 - Antivirals  Nov 17, 2022  22 days ago
COVID-19 News: A new study by researchers from Spain led by scientist from the Cell Structure Lab, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CNB - CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid -Spain has found that cheap natural cyclodextrins especially Beta Cyclodextrins can be used as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2!   Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides, consisting of a macrocyclic ring of...

MOST READ

Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
Source- Medical News - COVID-19 Research - Impaired Pain Modulation
Aug 13, 2020  2 years ago
Source: Supplements For COVID-19
Feb 05, 2020  3 years ago
Source : Thailand Medical news

Interesting Reads

Source: COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma and Hyperimmune Plasma Or H-Ig Therapies
Jun 15, 2020  3 years ago
Source: Nitric Oxide and COVID-19
Jun 15, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19 Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic
Jun 14, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19 Long-Term Health Implications
Jun 13, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19, Influenza and Next Wave
Jun 10, 2020  3 years ago
Source: Myocardial Injury
Jun 09, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19 News
May 21, 2020  3 years ago
Source: Covid-19 Treatments And Drugs News
Mar 20, 2020  3 years ago
Source: SARS-Cov-2 Coronavirus Research
Mar 08, 2020  3 years ago
Source : Thailand Medical News
Feb 11, 2020  3 years ago