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Source: COVID-19 Supplements  Dec 09, 2021  2 years, 4 months, 1 week, 1 day, 16 hours, 48 minutes ago

BREAKING! U.S. Study Finds That The Algal Polysaccharide Rhamnan Sulfate From Monostroma Nitidum Can Be An Effective Antiviral For COVID-19

BREAKING! U.S. Study Finds That The Algal Polysaccharide Rhamnan Sulfate From Monostroma Nitidum Can Be An Effective Antiviral For COVID-19
Source: COVID-19 Supplements  Dec 09, 2021  2 years, 4 months, 1 week, 1 day, 16 hours, 48 minutes ago
COVID-19 Supplements: A new study by researchers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-New York, USA and the University of Mississippi-USA has found the algal polysaccharide rhamnan sulfate from the green algae monostroma nitidum can be an effective antiviral for COVID-19 that is organic and safe.

 
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The pathogen responsible for COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), invades its host through the interaction of its spike (S) protein with a host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In addition to ACE2, heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of host cells also plays a significant role as a co-receptor.
 
Previous studies demonstrated that sulfated glycans, such as heparin and fucoidans, (a long chain sulfated polysaccharide found in various species of brown algae) show anti-COVID-19 activities.
 
Rhamnan sulfate (RS), a polysaccharide with a rhamnose backbone from the green seaweed, Monostroma nitidum, was evaluated for binding to the S-protein from SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of viral infectivity in vitro.
 
Monostroma is a genus of marine green algae (seaweed) in the family Monostromataceae. As the name suggests, algae of this genus are monostromatic (single cell layered). Monostroma kuroshiense, an algae of this genus, is commercially cultivated in East Asia and South America for the edible product "hitoegusa-nori" or "hirohano-hitoegusa nori", popular sushi wraps. Monostroma oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 6 prepared by agarase digestion from Monostroma nitidum polysaccharides have been shown to be an effective prophylactic agent during in vitro and in vivo tests against Japanese encephalitis viral infection. The sulfated oligosaccharides from Monostroma seem to be promising candidates as antiviral agents.

The structural characteristics of Rhamnan sulfate or RS were investigated by determining its monosaccharide composition and performing two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. RS inhibition of the interaction of heparin, a highly sulfated HS, with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (from wild type and different mutant variants) was studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In competitive binding studies, the