BREAKING NEWS! Study Discovers That COVID-19 Infection Stimulates The Production Of Abzymes Or Antibodies With Catalase Activity!
: Researchers at the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine in Novosibirsk in Russia have found that COVID-19 infection may stimulate the production of special antibodies known as abzymes. These abzymes exhibit catalase activity, which can degrade hydrogen peroxide - a harmful compound at elevated levels.
The study finding sheds new light on the complex relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and the human immune system.
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a major global health concern, leading to various post-COVID syndrome manifestations such as diabetes, heart and kidney diseases, thrombosis, neurological disorders, and autoimmune conditions as covered in various past studies and COVID-19 News
Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in the hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to detrimental effects on vital bodily functions, including oxygen transfer efficiency, iron balance, and deformation of red blood cells, which contribute to the formation of blood clots.
For the first time, the study team analyzed the relative catalase activity of serum immunoglobulins (IgGs) in patients who recovered from COVID-19, healthy volunteers vaccinated with Sputnik V, vaccinated individuals after recovering from COVID-19, and seemingly healthy donors.
Previous studies have shown that antibodies in mammals, alongside conventional antioxidant enzymes, possess catalase activity and play a crucial role in regulating ROS levels.
The study findings revealed that IgGs from COVID-19-recovered patients exhibited the highest catalase activity, significantly surpassing that of healthy donors, vaccinated volunteers, and vaccinated individuals after recovering from COVID-19.
IgGs from patients who recovered from COVID-19 had the highest catalase activity, and this was statistically significantly higher each compared to the healthy donors (1.9-fold), healthy volunteers vaccinated with Sputnik V (1.4-fold), and patients vaccinated after recovering from COVID-19 (2.1-fold).
These study findings suggest that COVID-19 infection triggers the production of antibodies capable of degrading hydrogen peroxide, which is harmful when present in excessive amounts. The discovery offers valuable insights into the underlying causes of various post-COVID complications and could pave the way for new therapeutic approaches to mitigate the severity of the disease.
The study also highlighted the impact of redox imbalances caused by COVID-19 on viral particle spread. Disulfide-thiol balance in the extracellular medium plays a critical role in virus entry. Reducing disulfide bonds affects the binding affinity between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can oxidize cysteine residues, preserving disulfide bonds and enhancing the affinity of SARS-CoV-2 for ACE2. Conversely, SARS-CoV-2 infection directly influences ROS production, which further complicates the redox balance. This intricate relationship between the virus and ROS generation contributes to the pathophysiological processes associated with COVID-19, including n
eutrophil infiltration, erythrocyte membrane destruction, oxygen transfer inefficiency, iron imbalance, and thrombosis.
Moreover, COVID-19 infection has been shown to reduce the body's antioxidant defenses, leading to an excess of ROS and subsequent damage to various organs and systems. The catalytically active antibodies, or abzymes, with redox functions present in healthy individuals and animals have emerged as key players in mitigating oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic compounds.
Comparing the catalase activity of COVID-19-recovered patients and Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals with that of seemingly healthy donors, the researchers observed a slight increase in catalase activity in the plasma of vaccinated individuals, indicating that Sputnik V vaccination does not significantly disrupt the redox balance and immune response.
However, mRNA vaccines such as Pfizer and Moderna have been shown to increase ROS levels in preliminary studies, suggesting that vaccination strategies may have varying effects on the body's redox state.
The study also analyzed the catalase activity of specific antibodies in COVID-19 patients, namely anti-S-IgGs and anti-RBD-IgGs, which are considered crucial indicators of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies play a vital role in inhibiting the interaction between the virus and target cells, effectively preventing infection.
The analysis revealed that the catalase activity of the IgGs in patients who had recovered from COVID-19 was significantly higher compared to the healthy donors. This further validates that the immune response to the virus triggers the production of antibodies with enhanced catalase activity, which contributes to antioxidant protection during the infection.
The study also investigated the different light chains (κ,κ-Igs and λ,λ-Igs) of the antibodies and their impact on catalase activity. Variations in conformational flexibility, half-life, and the tendency to change antibody specificity were observed between these different light chains, potentially influencing their catalase activity levels. Additionally, bispecific chimeric antibodies (κ,λ-IgG; HκL-HλL) were found in the blood, formed by the exchange of HL fragments among different IgG molecules. This exchange may lead to cross-antigen binding and catalytic activity. The level of catalase activity was affected by the composition of the light chains and the presence of reducing agents in biological fluids.
Interestingly, the study noted that the catalase activity of IgGs in patients with COVID-19 was relatively lower compared to other diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. However, it is essential to consider that the catalase activity increase in COVID-19 patients is still significant, especially considering the impact of the virus on oxidative stress and ROS levels in the blood.
The findings of this study shed light on the potential mechanisms underlying the complications of COVID-19, including post-COVID syndrome and adverse effects of vaccination. The production of antibodies with catalase activity in response to the infection suggests a protective role in controlling ROS levels and oxidative stress caused by SARS-CoV-2. Understanding these mechanisms can contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches to mitigate the severe course of the disease and its associated complications.
Further research is necessary to delve deeper into the specific characteristics and functions of these catalytically active antibodies and their potential applications in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. The study highlights the complexity of the immune response to the virus and emphasizes the importance of considering individual variations in antibody production, as well as the interplay between different IgG subclasses and light chains.
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
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