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COVID-19 News - Risk Of Cardiovascular Deaths  Jan 19, 2023  1 year, 1 month, 6 days, 16 hours, 20 minutes ago

BREAKING! COVID-19 News: All Exposed To SARS-CoV-2 Have Increased Risk Of Death From Cardiovascular Issues For At Least 18 Months!

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BREAKING! COVID-19 News: All Exposed To SARS-CoV-2 Have Increased Risk Of Death From Cardiovascular Issues For At Least 18 Months!
COVID-19 News - Risk Of Cardiovascular Deaths  Jan 19, 2023  1 year, 1 month, 6 days, 16 hours, 20 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: A new study by researchers from the University of Hong Kong has found that all post COVID individuals have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular issues for at least 18 months after infection or even longer!

The study that involved nearly 160,000 participants showed that SARS-CoV-2 infections irrespective being asymptomatic or even mildly or moderately symptomatic, was associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease and death in the short- and long-term.
The study findings showed that when compared to uninfected individuals, the likelihood of COVID-19 patients dying was up to 81 times higher in the first three weeks of infection and remained five times higher up to 18 months later.
Corresponding author, Professor Dr Ian C.K. Wong of the University of Hong Kong, China told COVID-19 News outlets, "COVID-19 patients were more likely to develop numerous cardiovascular conditions compared to uninfected participants, which may have contributed to their higher risks of death. The study findings indicate that individuals with COVID-19 should be monitored for at least a year after recovering from the acute illness to diagnose cardiovascular complications of the infection, which form part of long COVID."
The research team compared the occurrence of cardiovascular conditions and death in infected versus uninfected individuals recruited before December 2020, when no vaccines were available in the UK. More than 7,500 patients with COVID-19 infection diagnosed from March 16, 2020 to November 30, 2020 were identified from UK Biobank. Each patient was matched with up to 10 individuals without COVID-19 during the study period (March 16, 2020 to the end of follow-up on August 31, 2021) and a historical cohort before the pandemic (March 16, 2018 to November 30, 2018).
In the study, every uninfected group had more than 70,000 participants who were similar to the COVID-19 group for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular and other health conditions, body mass index, ethnicity, and deprivation. In all three groups, the average age was 66 years and there were nearly equal numbers of women and men.
The study team explained, "The historical control cohort was included to rule out the effect of routine healthcare services being reduced or canceled during the pandemic, which led to worsening health and increased mortality even in uninfected individuals."
All relevant data were obtained from medical and death records for outcomes including major cardiovascular disease (a composite of heart failure, stroke and coronary heart disease); numerous cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction; death from cardiovascular disease; and all-cause death.
Associations were evaluated for the acute phase (within 21 days of COVID-19 diagnosis) and the post-acute phase (starting at 22 days after diagnosis and continuing up to 18 months). Participants with a history of a particular outcome were excluded from that analysis.
Shockingly, when compared with the two uninfected cohorts, patients with COVID-19 were approximate ly four times more likely to develop major cardiovascular disease in the acute phase and 40% more likely in the post-acute phase. Compared to uninfected individuals, the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was up to 81-fold higher in the acute phase and five-fold higher in the post-acute phase. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to develop major cardiovascular disease or die than non-severe cases.
The study findings showed that COVID-19 patients had a greater likelihood of several cardiovascular conditions compared with uninfected participants in both the short- and long-term including myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and deep vein thrombosis.
Risks of some cardiovascular condition such as stroke and atrial fibrillation were elevated in COVID-19 patients in the short-term but then returned to normal levels.
The study team added, "This study was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, and future research should evaluate subsequent outbreaks.”
The European Society for cardiology spokesperson Professor Dr Héctor Bueno of the National Centre for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain commented, "COVID-19 has had a huge impact on patients with cardiovascular disease, who were less likely to receive optimal care during the pandemic and more likely to die from the infection. This study shows that COVID-19 also increases the risk of having cardiovascular complications and dying in the first weeks after the infection and remains high for months, suggesting that specific cardiovascular monitoring may be appropriate in these patients."
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Cardiovascular Research, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
This is the first study to date to evaluate the short- and long-term associations between COVID-19 and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and mortality in the general population.
The study involved a prospective cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection between 16 March 2020 and 30 November 2020 was identified from UK Biobank, and followed for up to 18 months, until 31 August 2021. Based on age (within 5 years) and sex, each case was randomly matched with up to 10 participants without COVID-19 infection from two cohorts ie a contemporary cohort between 16 March 2020 and 30 November 2020 and a historical cohort between 16 March 2018 and 30 November 2018.
The characteristics between groups were further adjusted with propensity score-based marginal mean weighting through stratification.
In order to determine the association of COVID-19 with CVD and mortality within 21 days of diagnosis (acute phase) and after this period (post-acute phase), Cox regression was employed. In the acute phase, patients with COVID-19 (n = 7584) were associated with a significantly higher short-term risk of CVD {hazard ratio (HR): 4.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6– 6.9]; HR: 5.0 (95% CI: 3.0–8.1)} and all-cause mortality [HR: 81.1 (95% CI: 58.5–112.4); HR: 67.5 (95% CI: 49.9–91.1)] than the contemporary (n = 75 790) and historical controls (n = 75 774), respectively.
With regards to the post-acute phase, patients with COVID-19 (n = 7139) persisted with a significantly higher risk of CVD in the long-term [HR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2–1.8); HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1– 1.6)] and all-cause mortality [HR: 5.0 (95% CI: 4.3–5.8); HR: 4.5 (95% CI: 3.9–5.2) compared to the contemporary (n = 71 296) and historical controls (n = 71 314), respectively.
The study findings concluded that COVID-19 infection, including long-COVID, is associated with increased short- and long-term risks of CVD and mortality. Ongoing monitoring of signs and symptoms of developing these cardiovascular complications post diagnosis and up till at least a year post recovery may benefit infected patients, especially those with severe disease.
While the study only stopped at 18 months, there are possibilities that this risk could extend for be even far longer periods.
What is interesting is that with the current situation where as a result of a constant continuous onslaught of infections and reinfections as a result of various clusters of even more immune evasive SARS-CoV-2 subvariants and sub-lineages emerging constantly, there is a critical question to be addressed as to whether these constant reinfections will increase this risk from cardiovascular deaths even much more.
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