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Thailand Medical News Team  Aug 07, 2023  6 months, 3 weeks, 14 hours, 14 minutes ago

BREAKING COVID-19 NEWS! Brazilian Researchers Discover That SARS-CoV-2 Uses CD4 To Infect T Helper Lymphocytes!

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BREAKING COVID-19 NEWS! Brazilian Researchers Discover That SARS-CoV-2 Uses CD4 To Infect T Helper Lymphocytes!
Thailand Medical News Team  Aug 07, 2023  6 months, 3 weeks, 14 hours, 14 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: The ongoing global battle against the COVID-19 pandemic has been marked by a relentless pursuit of understanding the complex mechanisms underlying the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the virus continues to challenge our societies, researchers at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in Brazil have unveiled a groundbreaking discovery that sheds light on the intricate interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system. This revelation could pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies aimed at mitigating the severity of COVID-19.


 
COVID-19 - A Multifaceted Disease with Immune Implications
Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has caused unparalleled disruption to global health and economies. The virus predominantly targets the respiratory system, with a predilection for the lungs. This can lead to a range of immune-related complications, such as lymphocytopenia (reduced lymphocyte count) and cytokine storms, which are directly linked to disease severity and mortality as covered in previous studies and COVID-19 News reports. However, the precise mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 disrupts the immune system's function have remained elusive.
 
CD4-Mediated Infection
In a groundbreaking study conducted in Brazil, researchers have uncovered a pivotal aspect of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study team demonstrated that the virus has the capability to infect human CD4+ T helper cells, a vital component of the immune system responsible for orchestrating responses against infections. This revelation is of paramount importance, as CD4+ T cells play a central role in both innate and adaptive immunity.
 
The study revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) directly binds to the CD4 molecule, a co-receptor famously associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This interaction facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into CD4+ T cells, thereby compromising their function and potentially leading to cell death.
 
The infected T cells also exhibit elevated levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a cytokine associated with viral persistence and disease severity. Thus, this groundbreaking research highlights the potential of CD4-mediated infection in contributing to a weakened immune response in COVID-19 patients.
 
CD4 and SARS-CoV-2 Interaction
The intricate molecular interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and CD4 was meticulously investigated through a series of experiments. Using cutting-edge techniques, researchers established that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein directly interacts with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the CD4 Ig-like V type. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations and binding assays affirmed the high-affinity interaction between these key molecules. Further evidence of this interaction emerged from experiments demonstrating the ability of soluble CD4 to effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into CD4+ T cells.
 
Implications for Immune Response and Disease Severity
The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CD4+ T cells reverberate beyond the realm of cellular interactions. Pr oteomic analyses revealed alterations in pathways associated with stress responses, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation in CD4+ T cells upon exposure to the virus.
 
These changes, combined with increased IL-10 expression and compromised cell viability, can collectively dampen the immune response against the virus and contribute to disease severity.
 
Furthermore, the study delved into the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cytokine expression patterns. While CD4+ T cells from patients with moderate illness exhibited upregulation of protective cytokines such as IFNγ and IL-17A, cells from severe COVID-19 patients demonstrated decreased expression of these key molecules. This stark contrast suggests a potential shift towards an anti-inflammatory environment in severe cases, potentially hindering effective immune responses.
 
Prospects for Therapeutic Interventions
The revelation of CD4-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T helper cells holds promise for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. By targeting the CD4-SARS-CoV-2 interaction, researchers envision the possibility of preventing viral entry into CD4+ T cells, thereby preserving the integrity of the immune response and mitigating disease severity. Combining this approach with measures to boost T cell resistance against SARS-CoV-2 could yield complementary therapeutic avenues to combat severe COVID-19 and safeguard patient outcomes.
 
Conclusion
The profound implications of the UNICAMP study shed new light on the intricate relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system. By uncovering the CD4-mediated infection mechanism and its multifaceted consequences, researchers have paved the way for innovative therapeutic interventions.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: eLife
https://elifesciences.org/articles/84790
 
For the latest COVID-19 News, keep on logging to Thailand Medical News.
 
Read Also:
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/many-have-a-fallacy-that-sars-cov-2-does-not-target-nor-impair-cd4-t-cell-function-nor-damage-them-it-does
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-u-s-nih-study-reveals-that-membrane-m-proteins-of-sars-cov-2-induce-altered-cd4-t-cells-that-dysregulate-interferon-signaling
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/yet-another-covid-19-research,-this-time-by-la-jolla-institute-for-immunology-shows-that-cd4-cells-are-affected-by-sars-cov-2-coronavirus
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/protein-called-cd47-found-on-cell-surfaces-found-to-be-contributing-factor-to-covid-19-disease-severity-according-to-study-by-uk-and-german-scientists
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-cardiff-university-researchers-uncover-how-sars-cov-2-evades-cd4-t-cell-immunity-via-hla-class-ii-presented-epitopes
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/u-s-niaid-study-reveals-shocking-insights-into-rare-immune-disease-called-idiopathic-cd4-lymphocytopenia-relevant-for-new-sars-cov-2-sublineages
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-latest-study-shows-sars-cov-2-impairs-immune-system-including-causing-t-cell-lymphopenia-but-increases-il%E2%80%9010%E2%80%90producing-regulatory-t-cells
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-u-s-nih-study-finds-that-those-with-long-covid-neurological-symptoms-have-lower-levels-of-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-immunology-study-reveals-that-sars-cov-2-causes-cd4-t-cells-and-cd25-hyperactivation-while-repressing-foxp3-genes-in-severe-covid-19
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-asymptomatic-individuals-found-to-have-higher-levels-of-lymphocytes-suggesting-crucial-role-of-cd4-cells-according-to-new-study
 
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-covid-19-study-reveals-that-sars-cov-2-uses-cd4-cells-to-infect-t-helper-lymphocytes--covid-19-a-potent-version-of-airborne-hiv
 

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