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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 01, 2023  2 months, 3 weeks, 2 days, 16 hours, 20 minutes ago

Health News: Largest International Study To Date, Reveals That Folate From Diet Including Leafy Vegetables Can Decrease Risk Of Colorectal Cancer

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Health News: Largest International Study To Date, Reveals That Folate From Diet Including Leafy Vegetables Can Decrease Risk Of Colorectal Cancer
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 01, 2023  2 months, 3 weeks, 2 days, 16 hours, 20 minutes ago
Health News: In a monumental stride towards unraveling the intricate relationship between diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, a groundbreaking international study, spearheaded by Dr Konstantinos Tsilidis from the School of Public Health at Imperial College London, has illuminated the pivotal role of folate, particularly derived from leafy green vegetables. This extensive investigation covered in this Health News report, is the largest of its kind and has not only cemented the link between folate intake and CRC risk reduction but has also delved into the genetic nuances that underscore this phenomenon.


 
Scope and Methodology
The study analyzed a colossal dataset comprising over 70,000 individuals, amalgamating findings from 51 studies to conduct a genome-wide interaction analysis. The primary objective was to identify genetic variants that could potentially modify the association between folate and CRC risk. The comprehensive nature of the research ensures its status as the most robust investigation to date, shedding light on previously unexplored facets of the folate-CRC dynamic.
 
Key Findings
The results of this study echo previous research on the inverse association between dietary folate and CRC risk. Individuals consuming higher levels of dietary folate experienced a 7% reduction in the odds of developing CRC for every 260 micrograms increase in their folate intake, equating to 65% of the daily recommended amount of 400 micrograms. Notably, this protective effect extended across CRC subtypes, encompassing proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer.
 
Dr Tsilidis emphasized the significance of these findings, pointing towards a potential 7% risk reduction in CRC through dietary adjustments. Leafy greens such as spinach, cabbage, and broccoli emerged as dietary powerhouses, offering a tangible avenue for individuals to fortify their defense against bowel cancer.
 
Understanding Folate and Its Sources
Folate, a natural form of vitamin B9, serves as a crucial component for various physiological processes, including DNA biosynthesis, repair, and methylation. The study underscores the importance of folate, especially for women in pregnancy or those aspiring to conceive, given its role in red blood cell production.
 
The dietary sources of folate are diverse and readily accessible. Spinach, cabbage, broccoli, sunflower seeds, whole grains, pulses like chickpeas and lentils, and citrus fruits like oranges constitute a rich tapestry of folate-rich foods. The versatility of folate extends to its availability in supplement form as folic acid.
 
The Burden of Bowel Cancer
Bowel or colorectal cancer, ranking as the fourth most common cancer in the UK, imposes a significant public health burden. With nearly 45,000 new cases annually and over 120 diagnoses each day, the urgency of preventive strategies becomes apparent. The study's findings, offering tangible dietary adjustments, hold promise for individuals seeking ways to mitigate their CRC risk.
 
Genetic Insights: 3p25.2 Locus and Beyon d
The study's genomic exploration identified the 3p25.2 locus on Chromosome 3 as a potential modifier of the association between folate supplements and CRC risk. The variant rs150924902 within this locus exhibited a robust interaction, prompting further inquiry into the specific genes involved.
 
The region of SYN2 (Synapsin II) and TIMP4 (Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 4) within the 3p25.2 locus emerged as potential players in the folate-CRC interplay. SYN2, coding for a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, influences neurotransmitter release, potentially modulating dopamine and serotonin levels.
 
While SYN2 has prior associations with glioblastoma and prostate cancer, its role in CRC is a novel avenue for exploration.
 
TIMP4, located within SYN2, adds another layer to the genetic narrative. As a member of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors family, TIMP4 influences processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of TIMP4, observed in various cancers, including colorectal cancer, presents a compelling link to folate availability and CRC risk.

Another locus, 6p22.3, surfaced in the study's secondary analysis. While its specific role in CRC remains uncertain, the presence of novel transcripts within its vicinity introduces intriguing avenues for future research.
 
Implications for Public Health
The study's findings transcend the realm of academic research, holding tangible implications for public health strategies. Dr. Helen Croker, Assistant Director of Research and Policy at the World Cancer Research Fund, highlighted the protective effects observed at usual dietary folate intakes, emphasizing the feasibility of incorporating folate-rich foods into daily diets.
 
Matt Lambert, Nutritionist and Health Information Manager at World Cancer Research Fund, reinforced the long-standing recommendation of a healthy diet centered around vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and pulses to mitigate cancer risk. Lambert pointed to the versatility of vegetables like spinach and broccoli, showcasing their adaptability in various recipes to enhance palatability and adherence to dietary recommendations.
 
The study's alignment with established dietary advice adds a layer of validation to existing recommendations. As the World Cancer Research Fund has been advocating for years, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and pulses emerges not only as a flavorful and nutritious choice but also as a strategic defense against colorectal cancer.
 
The Road Ahead: Experimental Validation and Personalized Approaches
While the study provides a robust foundation, the road ahead involves experimental validations and a deeper exploration of the identified genetic loci. Dr Tsilidis emphasized the need for additional studies, incorporating relevant omics data to validate the findings. The complexity of gene-by-folate interactions warrants meticulous exploration, potentially paving the way for targeted interventions and personalized approaches to CRC prevention.
 
Conclusion
In the quest to unravel the mysteries of colorectal cancer, this extensive international study serves as a beacon of insight. From the protective embrace of leafy greens to the intricate dance of genes within the 3p25.2 and 6p22.3 loci, the study navigates the intersection of diet, genetics, and cancer risk with unprecedented depth.
 
As individuals grapple with the realities of bowel cancer's prevalence, the study's findings offer more than just knowledge; they offer a roadmap for proactive dietary choices. Leafy greens, once relegated to mere nutritional advice, now emerge as potent allies in the fight against CRC. The genomic revelations add a layer of complexity to the narrative, beckoning researchers to delve deeper into the molecular underpinnings of folate's protective effects.
 
In the corridors of public health, this study echoes the familiar refrain of a balanced diet's profound impact on disease prevention. As we celebrate the triumph of folate in the battle against colorectal cancer, the journey continues—a journey fueled by scientific curiosity, a commitment to health, and the collective pursuit of a world where bowel cancer's burden is lightened through informed choices and innovative interventions.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002916523661088
 
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