BREAKING! Researchers From Brazil Warn SARS-CoV-2 Induced Immunological Dysregulation Can Increase The Risk Of Skin And Blood Cancer Relapses!
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 - Blood And Skin Cancers Oct 18, 2022 5 months ago
In an alarming new development, medical researchers from Ribeirão Preto Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo-Brazil have found that SARS-CoV-2 induced immunological dysregulation can potentially increase the risk of relapses of IB cutaneous T-cell lymphomas such as Sézary Syndrome and Mycosis Fungoides.
The study team presented a documented clinical case study to support their warnings.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of malignant T-cells in the skin potentially resulting in the development of rashes, plaques and tumors.
Sézary syndrome is an aggressive form of a type of blood cancer called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas occur when certain white blood cells, called T cells, become cancerous; these cancers characteristically affect the skin, causing different types of skin lesions.
Mycosis fungoides is the most common form of a type of blood cancer called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
The study team published their warning and cases study as a correspondence in the peer reviewed journal of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology.
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had published various past studies that have showed SARS-CoV-2 infections causing immune dysregulation and even immunodeficiency.
The Brazilian study warned about the potential role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in triggering the relapse of mycosis fungoides, a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
The study team aimed to discuss a report which described the recurrence of mycosis fungoides in a patient after contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). They described the symptoms and tests that confirmed COVID-19 and the recurrence of mycosis fungoides and discussed the potential viral mechanisms that could cause immune dysregulation in cutaneous T-cell lympho
The study team described the case of a 60-year-old female mycosis fungoides patient, whose cancer was controlled using ultraviolet A and 8-methoxypsoralen phototherapy, followed by narrow-band ultraviolet B therapy. She contracted a SARS-CoV-2 infection through household contact and developed a maculopapular rash.
It was noted that two weeks later, pruritis was observed in the areas with erythema, and the papules got desquamated and flattened. After two months, the papules on the limbs, abdomen, and trunk of the patient changed into parchment-like plaques.
COVID-19 infection was confirmed through a positive immunofluorescence test. The D-dimer values were elevated (1,876 ng/mL) and greatly above the positive cut-off (>500 ng/mL). Tests for T lymphotropic viruses showed non-reactive serologies, and the chest X-ray was normal.
Detailed histopathology showed cellular atypia and lymphocytic exocytosis, and immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in CD7 T lymphocytes and elevated CD4 T lymphocytes, indicative of stage IB cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
The study team discussed the immunological dysregulation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections that could potentially increase the risk of IB cutaneous T-cell lymphomas such as Sézary syndrome and mycosis fungoides.
Though the environmental and infectious triggers of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas have not been well explored, pathogenesis theories for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome include upregulation of T helper (Th) cell type 2 and decrease in Th1 cells, and the secretion of cytokines such as interferon α and interleukin-12.
COVID-19 has been associated with imbalanced production of cytokines, downregulation of regulatory T lymphocyte activity, and elevated serum levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein.
Also, the study team said that SARS-CoV-2 infections are believed to increase autoantibody production, exacerbating or triggering autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and possibly systemic sclerosis and lupus erythematosus.
It was also noted that while controlled cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are not inherently a risk factor for COVID-19, aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, immunosuppressive therapy to treat these lymphomas, advanced age of the patient, and lymphopenia can increase the risk of infection and severity of COVID-19.
This is the first documented clinical case report to report the case of relapsed cutaneous T-cell lymphoma following a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 60-year-old patient.
The study team presented the symptoms and immunological tests that confirmed COVID-19 and the recurrence of mycosis fungoides.
The case report also mentioned the other autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases that were known to have been triggered or exacerbated following COVID-19 in genetically predisposed individuals. The case highlighted the need to understand the immunogenetic dysregulation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections to mitigate the potential recurrence of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and other types of cancers in patients with controlled or indolent cancers.
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