Herbs And Phytochemicals: Dendrobium Lindleyi Steud- Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Potency, Anti-Inflammatory Effects And Thrombolytic Activity
Herbs And Phytochemicals
: Traditional medicine systems such as Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani have documented the use of orchids for their medicinal properties, as far back as Charaka, Sushruta, and Vagbhata. Among the various orchid species, those belonging to the Dendrobium genus have a rich history of therapeutic use. In fact, Dendrobium species have been mentioned in the ancient Chinese pharmacopeia "The Sang Nung Pen Tsao Ching" dating back to 200 B.C. These orchids were recognized for their tonic, astringent, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, Emperor Shen-Nung highlighted the medicinal benefits of Dendrobium in his "Materia medica."
Modern research has supported these traditional claims, revealing anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and other pharmacological properties of Dendrobium species. In Bangladesh, a country with approximately 194 species of orchids, including 91 medicinal orchids, Dendrobium lindleyi Steud is one such orchid with potential medicinal value. While the traditional uses and therapeutic benefits of D. lindleyi are not well-documented, it is noteworthy that fresh and dried stems of this species are used in traditional Chinese medicine to address issues like dehydration, fever, and eye health.
Prior research has unveiled promising biological activity in the floral section of D. lindleyi, yet the biological potential of the leaves, stems, and roots of this plant remains largely unexplored. Consequently, this Herbs And Phytochemicals
study by researchers from University of Chittagong-Bangladesh and Southern University, Chattogram-Bangladesh seeks to conduct a comprehensive investigation into the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of D. lindleyi. The goal is to validate its traditional uses and lay the groundwork for future research aimed at developing novel drugs derived from this orchid species.
The phytochemical screening of D. lindleyi involved both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative screening using various reagents provided insights into the chemical composition and the presence of specific alkaloid groups in different parts of the plant. Dragendorff's reagent, for example, yielded varying responses, with the stem extract showing the highest response. This suggests that the stem extract likely contains a higher concentration of alkaloids with secondary amine groups compared to the leaf and root extracts, which exhibited more moderate responses.
Similar variations in responses were observed with other reagents like Hager's, Mayer's, and Wagner's reagents. These responses indicated the presence of alkaloids containing different functional groups across the plant. In addition to alkaloids, other bioactive compounds such as coumarins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, proteins, phenols, quinines, resins, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids were detected in varying amounts during the qualitative screening.
Quantitative analysis further revealed the concentrations of specific phytochemicals in different plant parts. The highest concentration of alkaloids was found in the leaves, while the root contained the highest levels of phenols and flavo
noids. Protein content was highest in the root extract, and tannin content was most pronounced in the leaf extract. These findings highlight the diverse array of phytochemicals present in D. lindleyi and suggest a potential for a wide range of therapeutic properties.
The pharmacological activities of D. lindleyi were assessed through in vitro analyses, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic activities.
: The DPPH free radical scavenging assay was used to assess antioxidant activity. The root extract exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, with the lowest IC50 value of 58.24 µg/mL. The stem extract demonstrated intermediate potency, while the leaf extract had the least antioxidant potency among the tested plant parts. These results indicate the potential of D. lindleyi extracts to counteract oxidative stress, likely attributed to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds.
: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated through an albumin denaturation assay. The leaf extract displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect, with an IC50 value of 61.79 µg/mL, comparable to the standard. The stem and root extracts also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, although they were less potent than the leaf extract. These findings suggest that D. lindleyi extracts may have anti-inflammatory potential, possibly due to the presence of saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and tannins.
Thrombolytic activity was measured using the blood clotting inhibition method. The stem extract displayed the most potent thrombolytic activity, with an IC50 value of 242.74 µg/mL, followed by the leaf extract. The root extract exhibited the lowest thrombolytic activity. These results indicate the ability of D. lindleyi extracts to promote clot dissolution, potentially attributed to alkaloids and tannins.
Statistical analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between phytochemical content and pharmacological activities. The correlation values revealed a strong positive correlation between alkaloids and tannins with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic activities. This suggests that the presence of alkaloids and tannins in D. lindleyi contributes significantly to its bioactivity.
In conclusion, D. lindleyi, a member of the Dendrobium genus, exhibits a diverse array of phytochemicals, including alkaloids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, proteins, phenols, quinines, resins, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. These phytochemicals are distributed variably across the leaves, stems, and roots of the plant. Furthermore, D. lindleyi extracts demonstrate significant pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic properties.
The root extract stands out as the most potent antioxidant, the stem extract as the most effective thrombolytic agent, and the leaf extract as the most powerful anti-inflammatory agent. These findings underscore the potential therapeutic applications of D. lindleyi in the field of health and medicine. However, further research is warranted to elucidate the precise mechanisms of action and fully unlock the therapeutic potential of this orchid species. D. lindleyi serves as an example of the rich pharmacological diversity found within orchids, offering exciting prospects for the development of natural remedies and pharmaceutical innovations.
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Scientifica (Hindawi).
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