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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 05, 2023  2 months, 2 weeks, 5 days, 21 hours, 17 minutes ago

Medical News: Researchers Discover The Protein Mitf That Plays A Key Role In Nerve Repair!

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Medical News: Researchers Discover The Protein Mitf That Plays A Key Role In Nerve Repair!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 05, 2023  2 months, 2 weeks, 5 days, 21 hours, 17 minutes ago
Medical News: Peripheral neuropathy, a condition affecting over 3 million people annually in the United States, leads to pain and loss of sensation due to nerve damage outside the brain and spinal cord. This debilitating condition can result from various causes, including diabetes, injury, genetic disorders, and infections. However, a groundbreaking discovery by researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences - California-USA has shed light on a potential game-changer in the field of nerve repair - the Mitf protein.


                                               Graphical Abstract
 
Covered in this Medical News report, the research conducted by the Salk Institute has identified Mitf as a pivotal mediator in the repair processes of the peripheral nervous system in mice. This finding holds significant promise for the development of innovative treatments aimed at enhancing the repair process and effectively treating peripheral neuropathy.
 
Understanding the Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system comprises all the nerves branching out from the brain and spinal cord, providing sensation throughout the body. Neurons, responsible for transmitting information, and Schwann cells, which protect and support neurons' axons, are key components of the peripheral nervous system.
 
While the central nervous system lacks the ability to repair damage, the peripheral nervous system demonstrates remarkable regenerative capabilities. However, the mechanisms orchestrating this feat have remained poorly understood until now.
 
Lead researcher Professor Samuel Pfaff and his team focused on understanding the repair processes, particularly in Schwann cells, which play a vital role in protecting and repairing damaged neurons. Schwann cells enter a repair state triggered by a pathway mediated by the Mitf protein, according to the research.
 
Mitf: A Schwann Cell Sensor of Axonal Integrity
In a surprising revelation, the researchers discovered that Mitf acts like a sensor in Schwann cells, remaining dormant until damage occurs. When damage to neurons prompts Mitf to relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, it activates the repair functions of Schwann cells. To validate the significance of Mitf in nerve repair, the researchers conducted experiments where Mitf was removed. The results were striking -  in cases of both trauma and Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT), nerve repair was halted in the absence of Mitf.
 
Dr Lydia Daboussi, the first author of the study, likened Mitf to a "fire extinguisher," ready to activate Schwann cells' repair functions when damage occurs. The researchers noted that Mitf orchestrates repairs not only in acute trauma but also during chronic diseases like CMT. This discovery challenges previous assumptions about the limitations of repair mechanisms in genetic nerve degeneration disorders.
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Harnessing Schwann Cell Repair Programs for Therapeutics
The implications of this discovery are far-reaching. Professor Pfaff emphasized the potential of harnessing Schwann cell repair programs for treating chronic diseases. Targeted therapeutics could prompt more Schwann cells to repair peripheral nerve damage, potentially pushing these repairs to completion in chronic cases. Moreover, armed with a better understanding of repair mechanisms, researchers now contemplate the possibility of initiating repairs in the brain stem and spinal cord.
 
The researchers anticipate delving further into understanding diabetes neuropathy, the most common peripheral neuropathy condition. Additionally, they aim to explore therapeutics that bolster the repair pathway, creating more Schwann cells programmed to repair damage, regardless of its source - trauma, genetics, or gradual development over time.
 
Mitf's Role Explored at the Molecular Level
The study provides a deep dive into the molecular mechanisms governing Mitf's role in nerve repair. The researchers discovered that Mitf is a transcriptional sensor of axon damage under the control of Nrg-ErbB-PI3K-PI5K-mTorc2 signaling. This intricate signaling pathway activates Mitf through cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation, allowing it to regulate a core transcriptional program for generating functional repair Schwann cells following injury and during peripheral neuropathies.
 
The absence of Mitf was found to disrupt nerve repair, indicating its indispensable role in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration. Furthermore, Mitf was identified as a key regulator of a core genetic program that controls Schwann cell plasticity and repair cell function. This program is crucial for modifying how peripheral neuropathies manifest, as evidenced by its impact on diseases such as Charcot Marie Tooth type 4D (CMT4D).
 
Mitf, constitutively expressed by mature Schwann cells, undergoes post-translational modifications that regulate its subcellular localization. While Mitf is always present in Schwann cells, its transcriptional activity appears to be linked to nerve damage, triggering a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear redistribution. The study reveals that the Nrg1 ligand, expressed by sensory and motor neurons, activates ErbB receptors on Schwann cells, inhibiting Mitf. This interaction serves as a molecular switch, keeping Mitf in a transcriptionally inactive state until axon damage occurs.
 
The researchers found that Mitf's role goes beyond acute nerve injury, extending to chronic degenerative conditions such as CMT. In these scenarios, Mitf controls a core network of genes linked to Schwann cell plasticity and repair cell function, contributing to the alleviation of disease symptoms.
 
Unveiling Repair Cell Functions
Repair cells generated through Mitf activation play essential roles in nerve recovery. These functions include metabolic support of axons, recruitment of macrophages, clearance of cellular debris, and the formation of Büngner scaffolds, facilitating axon regrowth. The study indicates that Mitf is not only necessary for the transformation of mature Schwann cells into repair cells but also for the redifferentiation of repair cells into functional myelinating Schwann cells, restoring normal nerve conduction.
 
Implications for Peripheral Neuropathies
The study's findings offer a fresh perspective on peripheral neuropathies, especially in the context of hereditary conditions like Charcot Marie Tooth disease. By identifying a core gene set controlled by Mitf, the researchers propose that this set represents a beneficial transcriptional response for promoting injury repair and counteracting disease progression. This insight into the genetic signatures of repair cells, shared between injury and disease, opens avenues for potential therapeutic interventions targeting Mitf-controlled pathways.
 
Conclusion and Future Directions
The discovery of Mitf as a key player in peripheral nerve repair marks a significant stride in understanding the molecular mechanisms governing this crucial process. With implications for both acute trauma and chronic degenerative conditions, Mitf emerges as a potential therapeutic target for treating peripheral neuropathies.
 
As the researchers at the Salk Institute continue their investigations, future endeavors will focus on exploring diabetes neuropathy and developing therapeutics that amplify the repair pathway. The goal is to unlock the full potential of Schwann cell repair programs, providing new avenues for treating and mitigating the impact of peripheral neuropathies on millions of individuals worldwide. The journey from understanding Mitf's role to translating this knowledge into transformative treatments represents a paradigm shift in the field of nerve repair, offering hope for enhanced outcomes and improved quality of life for those affected by peripheral neuropathy.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Cell Reports.
https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(23)01294-9
 
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