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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thaiand Medical News Team Nov 20, 2023  2 weeks, 6 days, 20 hours, 42 minutes ago

BREAKING Medical News! Italian Study Shows That COVID-19 Vaccines Causes Persistent CD16 Downmodulation And NK Cell Impairment!

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BREAKING Medical News! Italian Study Shows That COVID-19 Vaccines Causes Persistent CD16 Downmodulation And NK Cell Impairment!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thaiand Medical News Team Nov 20, 2023  2 weeks, 6 days, 20 hours, 42 minutes ago
Medical News: In a recent study conducted by the UniCamillus-Saint Camillus International University of Health and Medical Sciences in Italy and Sapienza University of Rome, researchers have unveiled a profound and lasting impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on the dynamics of Natural Killer (NK) cells. This Medical News report delves into the study that explores the intricate world of NK cell functionality, particularly focusing on the impairment of FcγRIIIA/CD16, a low-affinity receptor for IgG. The findings of this research bear significant implications for understanding the intricate immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines.

SARS-CoV-2 heterologous vaccination associates with CD16 downregulation independently of CD16/FcγRIIIA V158F polymorphism; allotype impact on antibody-mediated effector functions. Heterologous vaccine-receiving individuals were stratified by FCGR3A genotype (high affinity V/V homozygous, n=9; intermediate affinity V/F heterozygous, n=14; low affinity F/F homozygous, n=14). (A) CD16 expression levels (median fluorescence intensity, MFI) and (B) CD16 MFI T1/T0 ratio were analysed in CD56dimCD16+ cells. (C) Percentage of IFNγ+ CD56dim NK cells was evaluated following PBMC stimulation with rituximab-opsonised Raji target (ADCC) at T0 time point. Percentage of IFNγ+ (D), CD107a+ (E), and IFNγ+CD107a+ (F) CD56dim NK cells was evaluated following PBMC stimulation with rituximab (RTX)- or obinutuzumab (GA101)-opsonised Raji target. Genotyped individuals were grouped as follows: high affinity (V/V or V/F) variant-expressing (n=7, grey boxes) and low affinity (F/F) variant-expressing (n=5, white boxes). (A–C) Bars represent median with interquartile range; (D–F) Boxes extend from the 25th to 75th percentiles, whiskers go from the smallest value up to the largest. p values of pairwise comparisons were calculated with Wilcoxon or Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests, as appropriate, and reported when p<0.05. (*,#) <0.05, (**) <0.005, (***,###) <0.0005, (####) <0.0001, (ns) not significant.
The Crucial Role of NK Cells in Vaccination
Natural Killer (NK) cells are pivotal components of the immune system, playing a crucial role in the control of infections and cancers. Within the context of vaccination, NK cells contribute to the protective effects of vaccine-induced antibodies. The low-affinity receptor for IgG, FcγRIIIA/CD16, expressed on NK cells, is central to mediating antibody-dependent functions. These functions include the killing of infected cells and the release of interferon-gamma (IFNγ), which potentiates adaptive immune responses.
Methods and Participant Details
The study involved the recruitment of forty-seven healthy young individuals undergoing either homologous (ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S) or heterologous (ChAdOx1-S/BNT162B2) SARS-CoV-2 vaccination settings. Peripheral blood samples were collected both before vaccination and 8 weeks after the booster dose. The researchers employed flow cytometry to evaluate the phenotypic and functional profile of NK cells. Additionally, serum samples were tested for circulating a nti-Spike IgG levels, and CD16 F158V polymorphism was assessed through sequencing analysis.
Key Findings Explored
The study's core findings indicated a downregulation of CD16 and a selective impairment of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and IFNγ production in the CD56dim NK cell population. Importantly, this impairment persisted for 8 weeks after boosting, specifically in the heterologous vaccination scheme, but not in the homologous scheme. The study highlighted the correlation between the magnitude of CD16-dependent functions and receptor levels before and after vaccination.
Furthermore, individual CD16 responsiveness was influenced by CD16F158V polymorphism. Notably, individuals with the F/F low-affinity genotype did not exhibit post-vaccinal functional impairment compared to those with intermediate and high-affinity genotypes. The study also demonstrated that conditions promoting high-affinity CD16 ligation overcame vaccine-induced and genotype-dependent functional defects.
Preservation of CD16 Expression and Antibody Titer
A significant revelation from the study was the direct correlation between the preservation of CD16 expression and anti-Spike IgG titer, suggesting that the individual magnitude of receptor-dependent functions may contribute to the amplification of the vaccine response. This underscores the interconnectedness between NK cell functionality and the efficacy of the vaccine-induced antibody response.
Implications for Antibody-Mediated Protection
Antibodies play a critical role in the protective immune response elicited by vaccination. The study emphasizes the importance of Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent NK cell activation, in sustaining protection against severe diseases. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is vital, particularly in contexts such as antigenically shifted viral variants, immunocompromised individuals, or time-dependent waning of neutralizing antibodies.
NK Cell Response to Vaccination
NK cells, as a crucial component of innate immunity, mediate Fc-dependent antibody functions through the expression of CD16. The study reveals that the functionality of CD16 is modulated by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, glycosylation patterns, and the presence of specific NK cell subsets. Notably, the NKG2C+ NK cell subset, characterized by CD94/NKG2C expression and associated with HCMV infection, demonstrated a unique response to CD16 engagement, remaining functional even with post-vaccinal CD16 downmodulation.
Persistent CD16 Downmodulation Unveiled
The study identified a marked and persistent downmodulation of CD16 levels in mature NK cells after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, particularly in the heterologous vaccination scheme. This phenomenon is postulated to result from immune complexes formed by the vaccinal antigen and vaccine-elicited IgG, suggesting a potential chronic engagement of CD16 by these complexes. Notably, CD16 downmodulation significantly occurred only in the group receiving the heterologous scheme, which elicits higher average levels of anti-Spike antibodies, indicating a potential correlation between antibody levels and CD16 downmodulation.
Impact on NK Cell Effector Functions
The research elucidates the consequences of CD16 downmodulation on NK cell effector functions, revealing a reduced ability of NK cells to degranulate, produce IFNγ, and perform both functions simultaneously in response to IgG-opsonized targets. Importantly, this reduced functionality is specific to CD16-triggered functions and does not indicate a generalized state of exhaustion in NK cells.
Host-Dependent Factors: Unraveling the Complexity
The study emphasizes the role of host-dependent factors in modulating post-vaccinal CD16 functionality. CD16F158V polymorphism, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) serostatus, and the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cell subsets contribute to the interindividual variability in NK cell response to vaccination. These factors play a crucial role in deciphering the intricate balance between genetic and environmental influences on NK cell contribution to antibody-mediated protection against disease.
Conclusion and Future Perspectives
In conclusion, this comprehensive Italian study provides unparalleled insights into the impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on CD16 dynamics in NK cells. The findings underscore the persistent downmodulation of CD16 levels and antibody-dependent NK functions after heterologous vaccination, emphasizing the complex interplay between genetic and environmental host-related factors.

Understanding these factors is paramount for unraveling the intricacies of vaccine-induced immune responses and optimizing vaccine strategies for enhanced protection against COVID-19. The study raises important questions about the long-term implications of NK cell modifications post-vaccination and their potential significance for public health. As we delve deeper into the complexities of COVID-19 vaccines, ongoing research will be essential to refine our understanding and improve the efficacy of vaccination strategies.
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal:  Frontiers in Immunology.
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