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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Sep 12, 2023  5 months, 2 weeks, 2 days, 6 hours, 1 minute ago

BREAKING COVID-19 News! Study Shows That Children Faced A 78 Percent Higher Risk Of New-Onset Health Conditions After They Had COVID-19!

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BREAKING COVID-19 News! Study Shows That Children Faced A 78 Percent Higher Risk Of New-Onset Health Conditions After They Had COVID-19!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Sep 12, 2023  5 months, 2 weeks, 2 days, 6 hours, 1 minute ago
COVID-19 News: The COVID-19 pandemic has cast a long shadow over the world, profoundly affecting public health systems, economies, and societies at large. Initially, much attention was understandably focused on understanding the clinical features and management of the acute phase of the disease in adults. However, as the pandemic evolved, it became increasingly evident that some individuals, including children, experienced lingering health issues even after recovering from the acute phase of the virus.


 
While it is widely acknowledged via past studies and COVID-19 News reports that children are generally less susceptible to severe COVID-19 compared to adults, recent data has raised concerns about the potential for new health conditions to arise in pediatric patients following their recovery from the virus.
 
To shed light on this matter, a comprehensive study was conducted by researchers from the University of Padua in Italy, in collaboration with the University of Milano-Bicocca in Italy, the University of Oslo in Norway, and University College London in the United Kingdom. This comparative study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk of new-onset medical conditions in children who had previously contracted COVID-19, as compared to a control group of unexposed children.
 
Methods
The researchers conducted a retrospective nested cohort study that involved analyzing data from an Italian pediatric primary care database linked to Veneto Region registries. The study encompassed children aged 0–14 years and was conducted between February 1, 2020, and November 30, 2021. The children who had tested positive for COVID-19 were categorized as the "exposed" group, while a 1:1 matched control group of unexposed children who had tested negative for the virus was established. To assess the risk of new-onset conditions, the study employed conditional Cox regression models that were adjusted for various covariates.
 
Results
The study included 1656 children in each group, yielding a total of 3312 participants.
 
Among the exposed group, 158 children (9.5%) developed at least one new medical condition following their recovery from COVID-19, with an incidence rate of 10.6 cases per 100 person-months (95% CI 9.0–12.3). In contrast, the unexposed group exhibited a lower incidence, with 98 children (5.9%) developing new conditions, corresponding to an incidence rate of 6.5 cases per 1000 person-months (95% CI 5.2–7.7). This discrepancy between the two groups was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001).
 
The study also examined the time trends in the incidence rates of new-onset conditions after COVID-19. Notably, the incidence rates exhibited a decreasing trend over time for both groups. The highest incidence rate was observed for neurological conditions in the exposed children, which ranged from 7.0 (95% CI 5.0–9.1) during the short-term period to 2.9 (95% CI 2.0–3.8) during the long-term period. Similarly, mental health conditions exhibited high incidence rates in the exposed group, ranging from 6.5 (95% CI 4.6–8.5) during the short-term period to 2.8 (95% CI 2–3.7) during the long-term period.
 
Further analysis of the data revealed that among the children who developed new conditions, 22% had mental health disorders, 22% had neurological disorders, and 13% had conditions falling into the "other" category, which primarily consisted of taste and smell alterations and skin rashes.
 
The remaining conditions included respiratory (9%), cardiovascular (7%), musculoskeletal (7%), gastrointestinal (7%), and metabolic (5%) disorders. Only 2% of the children developed two concurrent disorders.
 
In terms of risk, the exposed children demonstrated a substantial 78% higher risk of developing new conditions of interest after COVID-19 when compared to their unexposed counterparts.
 
This elevated risk was consistent across multiple categories of conditions, including mental health disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0), neurological diseases (aHR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.1), and other conditions such as skin rashes and taste and smell alterations (aHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.8).

Discussion
The study conducted by these international research teams provides valuable insights into the potential long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in children. While children are generally less prone to severe acute COVID-19, this study underscores the importance of considering the broader health implications of the virus.
 
One noteworthy aspect of this study is the inclusion of a control group of unexposed children, which allowed for a more accurate assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric health. This approach helped mitigate the potential overestimation of sequelae that might be erroneously attributed to the virus or pandemic-related restrictions.
 
The findings of the study align with previous research indicating that children who had COVID-19 are at an increased risk of experiencing neurological and mental health symptoms. The higher incidence rates observed in the short-term period suggest that some conditions may be linked to the acute phase of the infection.
 
However, the decreasing trend in incidence rates over time implies that persistent symptoms may be associated with long-term tissue damage and inflammation.

One particularly interesting observation is the absence of gender-based differences in the prevalence of outcomes. Nevertheless, there appears to be variation in the prevalence of specific conditions based on the age of the children.
 
Cardiovascular and neurological diseases were more prevalent in older children, while respiratory and mental health disorders were more common in younger children.
 
Conclusion
In conclusion, this comparative study reveals a concerning trend among children who have contracted COVID-19. While children have generally been less susceptible to severe acute infections, they are not immune to the long-term health consequences of the virus.
 
The results suggest that pediatric patients face a 78% higher risk of developing new medical conditions following COVID-19, with a particular emphasis on mental health and neurological disorders.
These findings underscore the need for continued research and monitoring of the long-term effects of COVID-19 on children. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of providing appropriate healthcare services and support to address these emerging health challenges in pediatric patients.
 
Ultimately, as the world grapples with the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study serves as a crucial reminder of the multifaceted nature of the virus's effects and the importance of comprehensive, evidence-based strategies for mitigating its long-term consequences.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Acta Paediatrica (Wiley).
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apa.16966
 
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