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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 17, 2023  2 months, 4 days, 11 hours, 32 minutes ago

COVID-19 News: UK Study Shows That Individuals With Blood Type O Are At Higher Risk Of Strokes After Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine!

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COVID-19 News: UK Study Shows That Individuals With Blood Type O Are At Higher Risk Of Strokes After Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 17, 2023  2 months, 4 days, 11 hours, 32 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: As the global endeavor to combat the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the vaccination landscape has come under increased scrutiny, with recent studies shedding light on potential complications associated with specific blood types. A notable investigation conducted in the United Kingdom has revealed a correlation between blood type and an escalated risk of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), commonly referred to as venous stroke, following the administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, known as Covishield in India.

                        Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 

The Study's In-Depth Findings
The study, spearheaded by Professor Dr Pankaj Sharma, a distinguished consultant neurologist at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust-Uk and covered in this COVID-19 News report, engaged 523 CVT patients, including 82 who experienced CVT after receiving the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, and 441 unvaccinated CVT patients. The primary objective was to investigate whether an individual's blood type played a pivotal role in influencing the development of CVT after vaccination.
Blood Type 'O' and the Heightened Risk of Venous Stroke
The study's revelations indicated a significant association between blood type 'O' and an elevated risk of venous stroke following Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination.
Among the vaccinated CVT patients, a substantial 43% belonged to blood group 'O,' in stark contrast to the 17% found in the unvaccinated CVT group.
Simultaneously, patients with blood group 'A' were notably more prevalent (71%) among the unvaccinated CVT cases, regardless of established risk factors.
Implications and Significance for Public Health
These groundbreaking findings have far-reaching implications for public health, emphasizing the potential role of blood type as a predictive factor for post-vaccination complications. Professor Pankaj Sharma, also affiliated with the Department of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway, highlighted the practicality of employing a simple blood group test to identify those most susceptible to cerebral venous thrombosis stroke following COVID-19 vaccination.
Moreover, the study underscored that individuals with blood type 'O' faced an approximate two-and-a-half times higher likelihood of being in the post-vaccine risk group. This knowledge is crucial for guiding public health strategies, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, with its affordability and ease of transport, could prove to be an effective tool in the fight against COVID-19.
Addressing Concerns Surrounding the Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine
The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine has faced intensified scrutiny due to its association with CVT, leading several countries to impose restrictions on its usage, particularly in younger age groups. Professor Sharma emphasized the urgency of predicting and comprehending the risk factors associated with the vaccine. He stated, "Predicting who is more likely to suffer from stroke after vaccination may provide confidence to governments for using this vaccine - particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where cheaper and more easily-transportable vaccines could prove more effective."
Scientific Methodology and Insights
The study employed a case–control design, recruiting patients from international studies investigating venous strokes. All participants were of European descent, and the study meticulously matched them in terms of age and sex. While the findings convincingly demonstrated a higher prevalence of blood group 'O' in vaccinated CVT patients, the study judiciously acknowledged the need for larger datasets to conclusively determine whether individuals with blood groups 'B' and 'AB' may safely receive the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine without an increased risk of CVT.
Exploring the Consequences of Blood Type 'O' in Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia
In delving deeper into the implications of blood type 'O' in vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), the study presented an intriguing revelation. Post-vaccination, blood group 'O' was notably more prevalent among patients with VITT-CVT after ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccination compared with unvaccinated cases.
The study highlighted that the most common ABO allele among vaccinated patients was 'O,' present in 63%, followed by allele 'A' at 31%. Conversely, in the unvaccinated group, the most common ABO allele was 'A,' present in 50%, followed by the 'O' allele at 43%. While the study acknowledged its modest sample size, it underscored the rarity of VITT-CVT post-COVID-19 vaccination and positioned itself as one of the largest cohorts recruited via two international ongoing studies.
Discussion on Blood Group's Role in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
Recent studies have examined the intricate relationship between blood group and COVID-19. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed that individuals with blood group 'A' faced a higher risk of severe disease, while those with blood groups 'B' or 'O' were less represented among COVID-19 patients. Critically ill COVID-19 patients with blood groups 'A' and 'AB' were more likely to require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care compared to those with blood groups 'B' or 'O.'
Drawing parallels with previous GWAS findings in patients with CVT, the current study supported the notion that non-'O' blood groups are associated with an increased risk of CVT. This connection raises intriguing questions about the role of blood group in the development of CVT after vaccination, suggesting that it might not only be indicative of onset and outcome but also play a role in the actual development of CVT following vaccination.
Future Directions and Conclusion
As the global scientific community continues its efforts to understand and mitigate the risks associated with COVID-19 vaccines, the study's findings open avenues for further investigation. Larger datasets and comprehensive studies are urgently required to determine whether a complete ban on the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, especially in young individuals with any blood group, is too restrictive.
In conclusion, the research provides unprecedented insights into the intricate relationship between blood types and the risk of venous stroke following COVID-19 vaccination. Unraveling these associations is paramount for informed decision-making, public health strategies, and ensuring the safety and efficacy of vaccines on a global scale. The ongoing pursuit of knowledge in this realm will undoubtedly contribute to refining vaccination guidelines and optimizing the use of available vaccines in the collective battle against the pandemic.
The study findings were published in the esteemed peer reviewed Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
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