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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 04, 2023  2 months, 2 weeks, 6 days, 14 hours, 31 minutes ago

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: Bakuchiol From Psoralea Corylifolia Reduces The Severity Of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Pneumonia

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Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: Bakuchiol From Psoralea Corylifolia Reduces The Severity Of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Pneumonia
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Dec 04, 2023  2 months, 2 weeks, 6 days, 14 hours, 31 minutes ago
The phytochemical Bakuchiol from the herb Psoralea Corylifolia was found to reduces the severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced pneumonia in mice by attenuating inflammatory responses
 
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: Pneumonia, a respiratory ailment marked by acute inflammation of the lungs, poses a significant global health threat, particularly due to its escalating morbidity rates and the surge in severe cases. Among the various causative agents, Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (MP) has emerged as a prominent pathogen, contributing to an alarming increase in refractory and potentially fatal pneumonia cases. Addressing this challenge, researchers are delving into innovative therapeutic approaches, with a recent focus on bakuchiol - a phenolic monoterpene compound derived from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. This news report aims to provide a detailed examination of bakuchiol's potential as a therapeutic agent against Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-induced pneumonia based on a recent study conducted by scientists from Fujian Medical University-China, The Fourth Hospital of Changsha-China and King Saud University-Saudi Arabia.


 
The Global Impact of Pneumonia
Pneumonia, characterized by symptoms such as cough, fever, and difficulty breathing, remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that pneumonia is responsible for approximately 4 million childhood deaths annually, making it the primary infectious cause of child mortality, particularly in underdeveloped nations. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a frequent pathogen in pediatric pneumonia, accounts for 10 to 40% of cases, adding complexity to the treatment landscape. Recently, various countries including China, Denmark, Netherland, Ohio and Massachusetts are reporting exponential surges of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infections.
 
Understanding Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacterium notorious for causing slow-progressing tracheobronchitis, often accompanied by a dry cough and agitation. While MP infections are generally self-limiting, recent trends have seen an increase in severe and even fatal pneumonia cases associated with this bacterium. The pathophysiology of MP infection involves intracellular colonization, adherence to host cells, and subsequent rupture of cell membranes, leading to alveolar damage and alterations in epithelial cell structure. This, in turn, impairs lung function and sets the stage for severe pneumonia.
 
Immune-Inflammatory Response in Mycoplasma Pneumonia
The immune-inflammatory response to MP infection is a critical aspect of its pathogenesis. Airway epithelial cells, responding to the infection, release an array of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, that recruit other immune cells, causing inflammation, airway remodeling, and airflow obstruction. Dysregulation of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 contributes to the progression of severe pneumonia by activating systemic inflammation. Notably, the immune response in MP infection has a dual effect, acting both as an early-s tage antibacterial agent and as a long-lasting agent that damages tissue.
 
Current Treatment Challenges
Current treatments for MP pneumonia often involve glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins to suppress inflammatory responses and alleviate clinical symptoms. The widely prescribed antibiotic, azithromycin, though effective against various bacteria, has limitations, including gastrointestinal distress in prolonged use. Moreover, the complexity of pneumonia treatment, compounded by mixed infections and mycoplasma colonization, underscores the urgent need for novel and effective medications with fewer side effects.
 
Bakuchiol: A Multifaceted Compound
Bakuchiol, extracted from Psoralea corylifolia, has gained attention for its multifaceted biological properties. Extensive research has unveiled its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-aging, and anticancer effects. Previous studies have shown bakuchiol's ability to reduce oxidative stress, edema, and inflammation in various models, prompting the current study to explore its potential against mycoplasmal pneumonia.
 
Methodology of the Study
The research employed BALB/c mice challenged with MP to induce pneumonia, with simultaneous administration of bakuchiol at a dose of 25 mg/kg for three days. Comprehensive assessments included measurements of lung weight, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, as well as evaluations of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess MP DNA, while bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis measured inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, lung histopathology was examined to identify structural alterations.
 
Bakuchiol's Impact on Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Mice
The results of the study revealed significant positive outcomes following bakuchiol treatment in MP-induced pneumonia mice. Notably, bakuchiol administration led to a marked reduction in lung weight, indicative of its potential in mitigating the severity of pneumonia. The compound exhibited effective antioxidant properties, as evidenced by reductions in MPO and NO concentrations, key indicators of inflammation. These effects were comparable to those observed with the standard antibiotic azithromycin, highlighting bakuchiol's promise as an alternative therapeutic agent.
 
Antioxidant Effects of Bakuchiol
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progression of pneumonia, and bakuchiol's ability to modulate antioxidant levels is a significant finding. In pneumonia-induced mice, bakuchiol effectively increased GSH and SOD concentrations while reducing MDA levels. GSH, a potent intracellular antioxidant, regulates cellular redox homeostasis, and the observed elevation in its levels suggests bakuchiol's role in defending against oxidative damage. These outcomes align with prior research, where bakuchiol demonstrated antioxidant properties in different models.
 
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Bakuchiol
Inflammation, orchestrated by cytokine production in airway epithelial cells, is a hallmark of MP infection. Elevated inflammatory responses contribute to lung damage and poor clinical outcomes. The study demonstrated that bakuchiol significantly reduced total cell count and MP DNA content in the lungs of pneumonia-induced mice, indicating its potent anti-inflammatory effects. Further, the compound led to a substantial decrease in inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, reflecting its ability to modulate the immune-inflammatory response. These findings are consistent with previous research, strengthening the case for bakuchiol's anti-inflammatory potential.
 
Downregulation of NF-κB Expression
The transcription factor NF-κB plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses, and its activation is linked to the severity of pneumonia. In the current study, pneumonia-induced mice exhibited an increase in NF-κB expression in the lungs. However, bakuchiol administration significantly downregulated NF-κB levels, suggesting its role in suppressing the inflammatory cascade. This aligns with earlier reports where other compounds demonstrated a decrease in NF-κB expression in pneumonia models.
 
Histopathological Improvements
Histopathological assessments provided visual confirmation of bakuchiol's therapeutic effects. The lungs of pneumonia-induced mice treated with bakuchiol showed a reduction in hyperemia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bronchial tube constriction. These improvements in lung tissue architecture align with the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of bakuchiol, supporting its potential in mitigating structural damage induced by MP infection.
 
Conclusion
In conclusion, this detailed exploration highlights bakuchiol's potential as a therapeutic agent against MP-induced pneumonia. The compound's demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, supported by reductions in inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB expression, and histopathological improvements, underscore its multifaceted therapeutic potential. While this study provides compelling evidence, further research is imperative to unravel the underlying mechanisms and validate bakuchiol's efficacy in diverse clinical scenarios. As the quest for novel and effective pneumonia treatments continues, bakuchiol emerges as a promising candidate, warranting deeper investigation and clinical exploration.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed Arabian Journal of Chemistry.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878535223006342
 
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