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BREAKING NEWS
Source: COVID-19 Warning  May 01, 2020  28 days ago
BREAKING! COVID-19 Warning: Study Shows Of Spike Mutations Of SARS-CoV-2, Making It More Transmissible And Dangerous.The Reality Is That There Is Unlikely To Be A Vaccine
BREAKING! COVID-19 Warning: Study Shows Of Spike Mutations Of SARS-CoV-2, Making It More Transmissible And Dangerous.The Reality Is That There Is Unlikely To Be A Vaccine
Source: COVID-19 Warning  May 01, 2020  28 days ago
COVID-19 Warning: Disturbing news is emerging as research findings from a collaborative study involving medical, genomic and virology researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico-US, University Of Sheffield-UK, Duke University in North Carolina-US, Sheffield Teaching Hospital-UK and the NHS-Foundation-UK, show that the Spike elements of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is mutating in a manner that indicates it is evolving to become stronger and more easily transmissible to humans and at the same time becoming more clinically harmful to humans.
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.29.069054v1.full.pdf+html


 
The pre-print release which is being reviewed for publication into a journal, focused on real-time mutation tracking in the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, specifically on the Spike (S) protein because it mediates infection of human cells and is the target of most vaccine strategies and antibody-based therapeutics.
 
The Team studied the mutations taking place across the Spike protein regions of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus over the last two months monitoring changes from the early strains in Wuhan to the specific strains across the globe in conjunction with the GISAID data.
 
They focused on 14 specific sites on the virus and 2 Spike mutations were of particular interests: D614G and S943P.
 
It was found that D614G is increasing in frequency at an alarming rate, indicating a fitness advantage relative to the original Wuhan strain and enables more rapid spread. S943P is located in the fusion core region, and is of particular interest as it is concerned with spreading via recombination.
 
The mutation D614G (a G-to-A base change at position 23,403 in the Wuhan reference strain) was the only site of interests to the researchers as it was found 7 times in 183 sequences that were available at the time. Four of these seven first D614G strains were sampled in Europe, and one each in Mexico, Brazil, and in Wuhan. In 5/7 cases, D614G was accompanied by 2 other mutations: a silent C-to-T mutation in the nsp3 gene at position 3,037, and a C-to-T mutation at position 14,409 which results in a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid change (RdRp P323L).The combination of these three mutations forms the basis for the clade that soon emerged in Europe.
 
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In mid-March, D614G was being tracked at the GISAID due to its high frequency, and referred to as the “G” clade; it was present in 29% of the global samples, but was still found almost exclusively in Europe.
 
However, an early April sampling of the data from GISAID showed that G614’s frequency was increasing at an alarming pace throughout March, and it was clearly showing an ever-broadening geographic spread.
 
A clear and consistent pattern was observed in almost every place where adequate sampling was available. In most countries and states where the COVID-19 epidemic was initiated and where sequences were sampled prior to March 1, the D614 form was the dominant local form early in the epidemic.
 
Wherever G614 entered a population, a rapid rise in its frequency followed, and in many cases G614 became the dominant local form in a matter of only a few weeks.
 
In Europe, where the G614 first began its expansion, the D614 and G614 forms were circulating early in the epidemic, with D614 more common in most sampled countries, the exceptions being Italy and Switzerland.
 
Through March, G614 became increasingly common throughout Europe, and by April it dominated contemporary sampling. In North America, infections were initiated and established across the continent by the original D614 form, but in early March, the G614 was introduced into both Canada and the USA, and by the end of March it had become the dominant form in both nations. Washington state, the state with the greatest number of available GISAID SARS-CoV-2 sequences from the USA, exemplifies this pattern (Figure 3 and S3), and a similar shift over time is evident in many other states including New York.
 
From a genomic and virological aspect,  the D614G mutation is associated with increased transmission. The first is based on structure. D614 is located on the surface of the spike protein protomer, where it can form contacts with the neighboring protomer. The mutation allows from a structurally perspective more easy ‘binding’ to human host cells through a variety of ways and from a immunological function, it disrupts antibody functions trying to attack it.
 
Hence the D614G mutation not only increases transmissibility, but also impacts severity of disease.
 
The S943P mutation however allows recombinant strategies for the virus to evolve.
 
The study of the other mutation sites L5F,  L8V V367F, G476S, and V483A all indicate that he virus can easily and evolve depending and conditions, displaying characteristics that it is even far more potent than HIV. There were also many other sites of mutations that the study covered.
 
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The study reveals that viruses bearing the mutation Spike D614G are replacing the original Wuhan form of the virus rapidly and repeatedly across the globe.
 
It is not known what is driving this selective sweep, nor for that matter if it is indeed due the modified Spike and not one of the other two accompanying mutations that share the GISAID “G-clade” haplotype. The Spike D614G change, however, is consistent with several hypotheses regarding a fitness advantage that can be explored experimentally. D614 is embedded in an immunodominant antibody epitope, recognized by antibodies isolated from recovered individuals who were infected with the original SARS-CoV; this epitope is also targeted by vaccination in primate models.
 
Thus, this mutation might be conferring resistance to protective D614-directed antibody responses in infected people, making them more susceptible to reinfection with the newer G614 form of the virus.
 
The study findings has serious implications as it means that the coronavirus is indeed evolving smartly and it is even far more potent and dangerous to the human body and we might start seeing newer and deadly clinical manifestations which is already being witnessed and also it could indicate that in communities with asymptomatic patients and also in recovered patients, the coronavirus is still evolving and becoming more lethal and its only when it would manifest chronic symptoms.
 
Also, it is most likely that here will be no successful vaccine ever developed that can stop the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.  Despite all the publicity and lies, it is impossible for a vaccine to be developed for a virus that has more complicated and far more potent attributes than the HIV virus, which for the last 30 year have yet to have a successful vaccine developed.
 
Medical researchers and governments should stop selling dreams to the public and instead focus on developing drugs that can suppress viral loads, suppress cytokine storms and also treat the various emerging clinical manifestations including not just pneumonia and ARD but also clotting issues, the damages of the epithelial linings of blood vessels and the gastrointestinal tract, the damages of renal cells, immune T-cells and even certain types of cardiac cells etc. There is not going to be a single drug that can cure or treat COVID-19 as it evolves to become more complicated.
 
Thailand Medical News is working and coordinating with other international research centres and developing a treatment and management  guidelines involving repurposed drugs, supplements and herbs which will be published soon.
 
For the latest COVID-19 warnings, keep on logging to Thailand Medical News.
 
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