Abbott announced today that a team of its scientists identified a new subtype of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), called HIV-1 Group M, subtype L.1
The findings, published today in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS),
show the role next-generation genome sequencing is playing in helping researchers stay one step ahead of mutating viruses and avoiding new pandemics.
Millions have died since the beginning of the global AIDS pandemic, more than a hundred million people have been infected with HIV and more than 67.9 million people today are living with the virus.2
Thanks to the work done by the global health community over the past few decades, the goal of ending the HIV pandemic is becoming feasible. Yet researchers must remain vigilant to monitor for new strains to make sure testing and treatments continue to work.
Dr Carole McArthur, Ph.D., M.D., professor in the departments of oral and craniofacial sciences, University of Missouri and one of the study authors told Thailand Medical
News, "In an increasingly connected world, we can no longer think of viruses being contained to one location," "This discovery reminds us that to end the HIV
pandemic, we must continue to outthink this continuously changing virus and use the latest advancements in technology and resources to monitor its evolution."
This new research marks the first time a new subtype of "Group M" HIV virus has been identified since guidelines for classifying new strains of HIV were established in 2000. Group M viruses are responsible for the global pandemic, which can be traced back to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Sub-Saharan Africa.3,4
To assess whether an unusual virus is in fact a new HIV subtype, three cases must be discovered independently.5
The first two samples of this subtype were discovered in DRC in the 1980s and the 1990s. The third, collected in 2001, was difficult to sequence at that time because of the amount of virus in the sample and the existing technology.
Currently, next-generation sequencing technology allows researchers to build an entire genome at higher speeds and lower costs. In order to utilize this technology, Abbott scientists had to develop and apply new techniques to help narrow in on the virus portion of the sample to fully sequence and complete the genome.6
Dr Mary Rodgers, Ph.D., a principal scientist and head of the Global Viral Surveillance Program, Diagnostics, Abbott, and one of the study authors further commented, "Identifying new viruses such as this one is like searching for a needle in a haystack. By advancing our techniques and using next generation sequencing technology, we are pulling the needle out with a magnet. This scientific discovery can help us ensure we are stopping new pandemics in their tracks."
As a global leader in blood screening and infectious disease testing, Abbott created its Global Viral Surveillance Program 25 years ago to monitor HIV and hepatitis viruses and identify mutations to ensure the company's diagnostic tests remain up to date. As part of this research, Abbott scientists confirmed that its core and molecular laboratory diagnostic tests can detect this new HIV strain.
Along with blood centers, hospitals and academic institutions around the world, Abbott has collected more than 78,000 samples cont
aining HIV and hepatitis viruses from 45 countries, identified and characterized more than 5,000 strains, and published 125 research papers to date to help the scientific community learn more about these viruses.
- Yamaguchi J, Vallari A, McArthur C, Sthreshley L, Cloherty G, Berg M, Rodgers MA. Complete genome sequence of CG-0018a-01 establishes HIV-1 subtype L. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019; https://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/publishahead/Complete_genome_sequence_of_CG_0018a_01.96307.aspx.
- Global health observatory (GHO) data: HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/.
- Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE, et al. Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature. 2008;455(7213):661-664.
- Faira NR, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, et al. HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations. Science. 2014;346(6205):56-61.
- Robertson DL, Anderson JP, Bradac JA, et al. HIV-1 nomenclature proposal. Science. 2000;288(5463):55-56.
- Yamaguchi J, Olivo A, Laeyendecker O, Forberg K, Ndembi N, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Quinn TC, Cloherty GA, Rodgers MA, Berg MG. Universal target capture of HIV sequences from NGS libraries. Frontiers Micro. 2018; 9(2150): 1-13.