Contrary To Misinformation, COVID-19 Mortality And Hospitalization Has Been Rising In The Last 30 Days Globally. Please Take Precautions!
The process of autophagy has been conserved over time among all living organisms. The process is similar in single cellular organisms like yeast to multi-cellular organisms like humans. The process is a dynamic one but can be divided into some basic steps:-
Autophagy is induced when the cell is put under stress or there is depletion of growth factors and/or nutrients in the media where the cell resides.
There are usually intracellular stimuli and signals that induce autophagy. One of the regulatory targets in the cell that is stimulated when autophagy is induced is the protein kinase target of rapamycin (Tor). Tor either directly or indirectly controls a protein complex that is sometimes called the switching complex.
As the signals for autophagy are in place and there is induction of the process, the next step is to select the material that is to be removed or broken down. This is termed cargo.
The cargo is selectively separated and is packaged inside vacuoles. This is a receptor-mediated route transport. A vesicle with the cargo is formed.
Completion of the sequestering vesicle results from complex interactions between proteins. Once fused with the vacuole the inner vesicle is released into the lumen and the whole thing is called the Cvt body.