Wishing All The Best For The Coming Christmas And New Year 2023 Festive Season

BREAKING NEWS
Coronavirus
Thailand Coronavirus News is a section dedicated to the new coronavirus that is causing an epidemic in China and fast spreading globally. The strain of coronavirus called Covid-19 or also commonly called the Wuhan coronavirus is genetically more potent and faster spreading than the SARS coronavirus. Currently teams are working to develop a new vaccine for this new coronavirus while other teams are...
Source: Medical News - SARS-CoV-2 Variants  Sep 09, 2022  3 months ago
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted many times over how researchers and scientists with their ‘dinosaur’ mentality and belonging to the traditional old school of thoughts have been misleading the world with their stupid ‘expertise.’   The whole approach and methods deployed to dealing with this SARS-CoV-2 crisis has been wrong from day one.   We first had COVI...
Source: COVID-19 Supplements - Medical News  Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
COVID-19 Supplements: A new meta-analysis study by researchers from the Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences-Iran involving various relevant published studies from around the world has shown that antioxidant supplements like Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Selenium and Zinc does help with COVID-19 c...
Source- Medical News - COVID-19 Research - Impaired Pain Modulation  Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by American researchers from the University of Florida and the University of Oklahoma has found that symptomatic COVID-19 infections lead to impaired pain modulation in young adults!   According to the research team in their study abstract, “Pain is a common symptom reported in COVID-19 patients. Impaired endogenous pain-modulatory mechanisms such as conditioned pain modul...
Source: UK COVID-19 News  Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
UK COVID-19 News: While the British health and government authorities are downplaying the extent of the health crisis in the United Kingdom and even concealing critical date pertaining to infection rates, death rates and excess death rates, the Zoe app monitoring platform has shown that there were 114,914 new symptomatic infections in the last 24 hours.! https://health-study.joinzoe.com/data#inter...
Source: Medical News -Argentina's Mysterious Pneumonia Outbreak  Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
As of the last few hours, a total of 8 individuals have died and 23 more hospitalized as a result of the mysterious fatal bilateral pneumonia disease outbreak that originated sometime around the 16th of August 2022. https://jornadaonline.com/salud/confirmaron-que-mendoza-se-prepara-para-un-posible-brote-de-legionella-20229715500 (Note although that Argentinian media claims that only 22 have been h...
Source: Medical News - BA.2.75.2  Sep 07, 2022  3 months ago
Unknown to many who are assuming that the COVD-19 crisis is dying down and will become a mild-like flu endemic, the newer Omicron variants like the BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 have given rise to newer subvariants that are evolving extremely rapidly as these viruses find ways to not only evade all immunity conferred by the natural infections or even by jab induced antibodies or the various monoclonal and p...
Source: Medical News - Vitamin B9-Folic Acid And COVID-19 Risks  Sep 07, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by researchers from the University of Otago-New Zealand, University of California, Davis-USA, The University of Alabama at Birmingham-USA, University of Queensland-Australia and the Birmingham VA Medical Center- has found high doses of Vitamin B9 or folic acid were associated with increased COVID-19 risk. According to the study team, folic acid, a B vitamin that's used widely to f...
Source: Medical News - New Novel Polyomavirus  Sep 06, 2022  3 months ago
Interestingly, researchers from the infamous Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), (The centre of the various controversial hypotheses on the origins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus) have discovered a novel DNA virus found in small mammals like Lemniscomys species ie a type of grass mice or zebra mice that are mostly found in the African continent besides certain European and middle-eastern countries. &nbs...
Source: Medical News - Fatal Pneumonia Outbreak  Sep 06, 2022  3 months ago
The mysterious fatal pneumonia disease outbreak that first claimed the life a  doctor that was suspected of treating patient zero (A 70 year old women who was the third person to die from the disease ) and infected numerous other patients and healthcare workers at the Eva Peron hospital in Tucuman, Argentina is now spreading rapidly and according to an Argentinian media report has now caused ...
Source: Medical News - New Measles Strain  Sep 05, 2022  3 months ago
While the world has been more engrossed in COVID-19, monkeypox, booster vaccines, the Ukraine-Russia war and the downfall of cryptocurrencies, no attention has been focused nor any aid and medical assistance been offered to the health authorities, physicians and hospitals in Zimbabwe that are facing an outbreak of a new deadly strain of measles that is causing the deaths of children at an exponent...
Source: Medical News-SARS-CoV-2-Skin  Sep 05, 2022  3 months ago
Italian researchers from the University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, University of Turin, the FPO-IRCCS Candiolo Cancer Institute and the Pathology Unit at Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza in new study have found that the SARS-CoV-2 virus could possibly penetrate the skin through the eccrine sweat glands!   The current ongoing SARS-CoV-2 crisis has disrupted global health...
Source: Medical News -SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins Destroys Intestinal Cells.  Sep 04, 2022  3 months ago
Data from a new study by researchers from Shenzhen Baoan Second People's Hospital in China has alarmingly validated that not only does the spike proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus damage lung cells but they also damage and destroy the intestinal cells as well!   The study findings  clearly showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein damaged human small intestinal mucosa epithelial cells...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID Research  Sep 04, 2022  3 months ago
Long COVID Research: Alarming study findings from a new research conducted by medical scientist from the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad in Mexico has found that almost a third of Post-COVID patients who initially only developed mild symptoms upon infection displayed impaired lung function!   To date, only a few studies have assessed lung function in Hispanic subjects recovering from...
Source: Medical News - Argentina Mysterious Fatal Pneumonia Disease  Sep 04, 2022  3 months ago
Doctors and other healthcare workers at the Eva Peron hospital in Tucuman where the initial outbreak of a mysterious fatal pneumonia-related disease emerged are threatening a walk-out and strike as they believe that the country’s politicians are attempting to cover up the seriousness of the outbreak while putting the risk of millions at risk.   Most of the infected so far have been he...
Source: Medical News - Genes - COVID-19 Severity  Sep 03, 2022  3 months ago
A new study led by researchers from Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) at Charité-Universitäts-medizin-Germany has found that eight human proteins and genes paly a very critical role in the determination of COVID-19 outcomes in individuals with the ELF5 gene being the most important.   The other proteins and genes include OAS1, HSP40, RAB2A, NUDT5, CSF3, SFTPD and ABO.   The ...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID Diagnostics  Sep 02, 2022  3 months ago
Long COVID Diagnostics: IncellDx, a company based in California-USA specializing in a precision medicine and an array of advanced novel diagnostics and prognostics for the treatment of various infectious disease and cancer is officially launching the world’s first diagnostic test for Long COVID in Europe this month after securing the CE-IVD marking in Europe.   The company’s uti...
Source: Medical News - Argentina Fatal Bilateral Pneumonia Outbreak  Sep 02, 2022  3 months ago
While health authorities in Argentina along with WHO officials and also medical researchers are still trying to figure out the causative agent for the outbreak of a new mysterious fatal pneumonia disease in Tucuman-Argentina, caseloads are increasing and another death has also been reported in the last 24 hours since Thailand Medical News had broke the story online in English about the new outbrea...
Source: Medical News - Novel Zoonotic Avian Influenza Virus A(H3N8)  Sep 01, 2022  3 months ago
Researchers from the University of Hong Kong are warning that a current outbreak of a new zoonotic avian influenza virus among poultry and other birds in China and Hong Kong could lead to a serious human pandemic if surveillance and measures are not put into place soon.   Zoonotic and pandemic influenza continue to pose threats to global public health.   Typically, pandemics arise when...
Source: Medical News -   Sep 01, 2022  3 months ago
Health authorities in Argentina have announced the discovery of a new fatal respiratory disease that causes bilateral pneumonia in the province of Tucuman. To date, six people have been found to be infected with the new disease since the last 15 days. Two have already died while three are in ICU wards requiring ventilators while the fourth, a healthcare worker with moderate symptoms is currently u...
Source: Medical News - SARS-CoV-2 Origins  Aug 31, 2022  3 months ago
SARS-CoV-2 Origins: A new study led by researchers from the University of Milan-Italy and the Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine at Temple University-Philadelphia-USA has found evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples in Italy dated as early as September 2019!   The study team was evaluating the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and measles-like syndromes in Lombardy ...
Source: Medical News -Antigenic Interference And COVID-19 Severity  Aug 30, 2022  3 months ago
During the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic, we were feed with dubious study findings by non-credible researchers that made fake claims that previous influenza infections and even other respiratory infections could offer a certain degree of protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and prevent disease severity.   Findings from a new study by medical researchers from the University of Calif...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 News  Aug 30, 2022  3 months ago
While Hong Kong is facing yet another COVID-19 surge caused by a variety of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, physicians and pediatric specialist are concerned as they are witnessing new clinical symptoms in children infected with COVID-19.   Besides hoarseness seen in most infected children, a growing number of children especially the younger ones of ages between 1 to 8 are also developing inspirat...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 Supplements - Vitamin B3(Niacin)  Aug 29, 2022  3 months ago
COVID-19 Supplements: Indian researchers from the city of Bangalore (Bengaluru) in Karnataka-India have found in a new study that niacinamide or Vitamin B3 (niacin) can be used to enhance a natural occurring antiviral in humans called cathelicidin (LL37) to destroy the membrane of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thus inhibiting its replication.   The study team comprised of medical scientist from the...
Source; Medical News - NeuroCOVID  Aug 28, 2022  3 months ago
NeuroCOVID: A study led by researchers from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - U.S. National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Army’s Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and The Joint Pathology Center at the Defense Health Agency in Maryland have found that SARS-CoV-2 infections causes serious damage to the microvessels of the brain.   To da...
Source: Medical News - Henoch-Schönlein Purpura-(HSP) Disease And COVID-19  Aug 27, 2022  3 months ago
Researchers from the Medical University of Silesia in Poland have found further proof that SARS-CoV-2 infections can trigger Henoch-Schönlein Purpura-(HSP) disease also known currently as IgA-associated vasculitis (IgAV)!   Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) disease is a condition that involves swelling (inflammation) of small blood vessels. The swollen blood vessels leak into the ski...
Source: Medical News - SARS-CoV-2 Incubation  Aug 26, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by researchers from Peking University-China and Tsinghua University-China has found that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is evolving to make humans sick faster as the incubation periods are getting shorter especially with the newer emerging variants.   The incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. &n...
Source: Medical News - Apple Cider Vinegar - COVID-19  Aug 25, 2022  3 months ago
Medical researchers from Khwarizmi Institute of Science and Technology-Iran have in a new study involving mice found that apple cider vinegar could be used to treat COVID-19 and also to reduce associated inflammatory responses in COVID-19 especially in the lungs.   The study team used a local Iranian apple cider vinegar called D.SAP in the successful animal study and next planning a randomi...
Source: Medical News - Povidone Nasal Sprays For COVID-19  Aug 24, 2022  3 months ago
A study by researchers from Mahidol University, Siam University and Samut Sakhon Hospital has found that 0.4% povidone-iodine nasal spray is not the least effective as a prophylaxis to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections.   During the initial phases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, numerous Indian scammers and Indian run companies were promoting various Povidone-iodine nasal sprays products as prophyl...
Source: Medical News - Monkeypox Updates  Aug 23, 2022  3 months ago
The World Health Organization or WHO has reported that here has been several documented cases of breakthrough monkeypox infections and warned that people should assume that the current monkeypox vaccines are a totally effective prophylaxis!   WHO officials stressed that while the monkeypox vaccine is not 100% effective, individuals should also use preventive measures to decrease the risk of...
Source: Medical News - Macular Dystrophy  Aug 23, 2022  3 months ago
Researchers from the U.S. National Eye Institute which is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health at Maryland-USA have discovered a new type of macular dystrophy, which is a cause of central vision loss that is caused by a new type of mutation of the human gene TIMP3.   An existing eye disease called Sorsby fundus dystrophy is a typically adult-onset maculopathy with high risk for ch...
Source: Medical News - Liver Cancers - IL-6  Aug 22, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by researchers from German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have identified in mice the cell of origin of combined liver/biliary duct carcinomas, a rare type of cancer of the liver. The pro-inflammatory immune messenger interleukin 6 (IL-6) was found to be the driver of carcinogenesis. Blocking of IL-6 reduced both t...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 Diets  Aug 22, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by researchers from Tianjin Medical University-China has found that diets rich in ultra-processed foods (UPF) increases the risk of COVID-19.   Ultra-processed foods are made mostly from substances extracted from foods, such as fats, starches, added sugars, and hydrogenated fats. They typically also contain additives like artificial colors and flavors or stabilizers and in many ...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 Drugs - Metformin  Aug 22, 2022  3 months ago
COVID-19 Drugs: A randomized clinical trial involving 1431 non-hospitalized patients showed that metformin reduced the risk of COVID-19 severity and risk of COVID-19 mortality.   The randomized double-blinded placebo- controlled trial by conducted by the COVID-OUT consortium that is led by researchers from University of Minnesota and also involved medical scientists from the UnitedHealth Gro...
Source: Medical News - BA.2.75.2  Aug 21, 2022  3 months ago
Researchers are sounding warning alerts about a new subvariant that was spawned by the BA.2.75 variant that carries the additional spike mutations R346T, F486S And D1199N.   This new subvariant has been designated as BA.2.75.2. https://github.com/cov-lineages/pango-designation/issues/963   Already the BA.2.75 variant has been found to be more transmissible, more immune evasive and path...
Source: India COVID-19 News  Aug 21, 2022  3 months ago
India COVID-19 News: According to official figures released by the Indian government, India only saw about 11,539 new COVID-19 infections in the last 24 hours and only 43 COVID-19 deaths, a further fall form the previous day figures but physicians in cities like Mumbai, Delhi and Bengaluru are insisting that the actual daily figures are much higher and that in many private hospitals, hospital beds...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID-19 Research - IBS  Aug 20, 2022  3 months ago
Long COVID Research: Researchers Dr Walter Chan, MD, MPH, an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School in Cambridge-USA and Dr Madhusudan Grover, MBBS, an associate professor of medicine and physiology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota have in a new meta study found that COVID-19 infections can also cause disorders of gut-brain interaction, including post-infection or Post COVID irritable...
Source: Medical News -Long COVID- Microvascular Issues  Aug 19, 2022  3 months ago
A new study by researchers from the Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center at Houston Methodist Hospital has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infections results in decreased myocardial blood flow which can impact cardiovascular health and also cause a variety of other heart related issues especially in Long COVID patients.   According to the study team, their research findings su...
Source: NeuroCOVID  Aug 18, 2022  4 months ago
NeuroCOVID: A new study by researchers from Oxford University covering more than 1,284 437 Post COVID-19 patients showed that many displayed a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders even up to 2 years after SARS-CoV-2 infection!   The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: The Lancet Psychiatry. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(...
Source: Medical News - SARS-CoV-2 Re-infections  Aug 18, 2022  4 months ago
A new study by researchers from The National University Hospital of Iceland and University of Iceland published in the peer reviewed journal: JAMA Network showed that the more COVID-19 jabs a person received, their chances of getting re-infected increases! https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/article-abstract/2794886   Reinfections are already becoming the norm and in coming mon...
Source:   Aug 17, 2022  4 months ago
Emerging preliminary data from an international collaboration of researchers from the United Kingdom, Africa and the UAE is indicating the current measles virus that is currently causing a deadly outbreak in parts of  Zimbabwe, Afghanistan and also in parts of Iran, Turkmenistan, Somalia, Yemen, Nigeria and Ethiopia do not belong to the 24 known genotypes of measles virus and are not from the...
Source: Monkeypox Research - Asymptomatic Transmissions  Aug 16, 2022  4 months ago
The Monkeypox crisis is expected to escalate as it seems that current protocols in certain countries to only test and treat individuals who display symptoms might not be the right move as more mounting evidence is showing that many asymptomatic infections out there that are going undetected and are helping to spread the disease unknowingly. Furthermore, no one knows what are the long-term effects ...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID - Viral Persistence  Aug 16, 2022  4 months ago
Long COVID-19 Research: A new study by researchers from the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at University of Kansas-USA has revealed that many Long COVID-19 patients have higher levels of circulating SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA compared to individuals with acute COVID-19 infection!   For a long time already, Thailand Medical News has been warning that SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence ...
Source: Medical News- Intermittent Fasting And COVID-19  Aug 15, 2022  4 months ago
A new study by American researchers from Intermountain Medical Center-Utah, Stanford University-California, University of Utah, Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions-Utah and University of California San Diego has found that intermittent fasting helps prevent the risk of COVID-19 disease severity.   The practice of intermittent fasting, also known as intermittent energy restrictio...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID -Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation  Aug 14, 2022  4 months ago
A new Long COVID study lead by Yale Immunology Professor Dr Akiko Iwasaki, PhD that involved 215 individuals from Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City and Yale New Haven Hospital in Connecticut has interesting found that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) reactivation and low cortisol levels are common in many Long COVID patients. The study which also had many other interesting findings is the first study ...
Source: Medical News - Drug Resistant Tuberculosis In The COVID-19 Pandemic  Aug 13, 2022  4 months ago
Scientists are warning that already with the current COVID-19 pandemic causing immune dysfunction in millions of people globally not to mention the possible effects of the inoculation campaigns on the human immune system, the emergence of new drug resistant genes in Tuberculosis (TB) is simply another global health crisis waiting to happen, if it has not already started.   Many who are immu...
Source: Medical News - Long COVID Research  Aug 13, 2022  4 months ago
Long COVID Research: A new study lead by researchers from the University of Birmingham-UK has found that sexual dysfunction and hair loss is joining fatigue and brain fog as leading Long COVID issues.   SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with a range of persistent symptoms impacting everyday functioning, known as post-COVID-19 condition or long COVID.   The Long COVID Research study ...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 Drugs -Remdesivir  Aug 13, 2022  4 months ago
COVID-19 Drugs: A new study by Japanese researchers from Tohoku University, Kyushu University, Okayama University and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki-Japan has alarmingly found that the U.S. FDA approved and heavily promoted drug for COVID-19 ie Remdesivir activates the urotensin II receptor and induces cardiomyocyte dysfunction that can lead to heart issues that can also end ...
Source: Medical News - NeuroCOVID  Aug 12, 2022  4 months ago
NeuroCOVID: A new study by researchers from Institute of Biology at the University of Campinas-Brazil has provided alarming evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infects astrocytes and to a lesser extent, neurons of the human brain by using the NRP1 (Neuropilin-1) receptors and in the process causes damage to the brain!   It has already widely known that neurological symptoms are among t...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 Research  Aug 12, 2022  4 months ago
COVID-19 Research: A new study by German researchers from University Hospital Münster has alarmingly found that that SARS-CoV-2 virus leaves a persistent capillary rarefication (a reduction in vascular density) even 18 months after infection!   Capillary rarefaction is a hallmark of fibrotic disease and reduces blood perfusion and oxygen delivery. Alterations in intracellular pO2 have ...
Source: Medical News - Pediatric Long COVID  Aug 11, 2022  4 months ago
Pediatric Long COVID: A new study by researchers from The University of Texas (UT) Health Science Center at Houston-USA has found that children who contracted mild COVID-19 can still develop Long COVID symptoms after ‘recovery’.   The Pediatric Long COVID study findings serve as warnings to parents, teachers and also physicians that children who had contracted COVID-19 irrespect...
Source: Long COVID - ACTH Secretion Impairment  Aug 10, 2022  4 months ago
Long COVID: Unknown to many, SARS-CoV-2 infections can also cause a variety of disruptions or dysregulation of the endocrine system causing the impairment of various hormones critical for life sustenance. Some of the Long COVID symptom manifestations are actually due to impairment of certain hormone secretions.   In this documented case study, researchers from Division of Diabetes and Endoc...
Source: Medical News - Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants BA.2.10 and BA.2.76  Aug 09, 2022  4 months ago
Numerous virologists and genomic experts are warning that the next concerning SARS-CoV-2 will most likely emerge from India again if not from the African continent. However current data is indicating that India is the forerunner.   India gave the world the Delta and also the new BA.2.75 variant that is already becoming a concern due to its enhanced transmissibility and also is more pathogen...
Source: Thailand Medical  Aug 09, 2022  4 months ago
A new study by researchers from Cardiff University School of Medicine-UK has found that the SARS-CoV-2 spike mutation P272L emerged to basically evade killer T-Cells generated by infection and vaccination.   The study found that the SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutation P272L emerged and transmitted in several viral lineages including in the current Omicron variants.   The residue 272 sits central...
Source: SARS-CoV-2 BA.2.75 Variant  Aug 09, 2022  4 months ago
A new study by researchers from Japan have found that the BA.2.75 variant that is expected to follow after the BA.5 surges along with possibly another new emerging variant ie BA.4.6, is not only more transmissible than the BA.5 variant but also more pathogenic than the original BA.2 variant.   The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 emerged in May 2022. BA.2.75 is a BA.2 descendant but is phylogenet...
Source: Medical News - COVID-19 And Pregnancies  Aug 08, 2022  4 months ago
In the first 15 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have so many ‘garbage’ Western researchers, physicians and so called ‘experts’ from the United Kingdom and United States claiming that infections with SARS-CoV-2 virus does not affect pregnant women or their unborn babies but of late, we are coming across a lot of research data and case reports showing that this is not the...

MOST READ

Sep 08, 2022  3 months ago
Source- Medical News - COVID-19 Research - Impaired Pain Modulation
Aug 13, 2020  2 years ago
Source: Supplements For COVID-19
Feb 05, 2020  3 years ago
Source : Thailand Medical news

Interesting Reads

Source: COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma and Hyperimmune Plasma Or H-Ig Therapies
Jun 15, 2020  2 years ago
Source: Nitric Oxide and COVID-19
Jun 15, 2020  2 years ago
Source: COVID-19 Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic
Jun 14, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19 Long-Term Health Implications
Jun 13, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19, Influenza and Next Wave
Jun 10, 2020  3 years ago
Source: Myocardial Injury
Jun 09, 2020  3 years ago
Source: COVID-19 News
May 21, 2020  3 years ago
Source: Covid-19 Treatments And Drugs News
Mar 20, 2020  3 years ago
Source: SARS-Cov-2 Coronavirus Research
Mar 08, 2020  3 years ago
Source : Thailand Medical News
Feb 11, 2020  3 years ago