Massive Coverup Attempt About Origins Of Omicron Variant And Seriousness Of The New Variant By Those Controlling The COVID-19 Narratives. Exclusive Expose Soon To be Published.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an umbrella term which describes a number of conditions involving joint inflammation in children below the age of 16 years. There are seven types described :
Signs and symptoms vary from type to type, and even between individuals. Some children do not complain of pain in the beginning. Others may manifest systemic symptoms and signs. Thus the diagnosis of JIA is essentially based on:
JIA may show up as:
The significance of the symptoms and signs in terms of the child’s social and academic activity should also be assessed. A careful family history should be taken to identify autoimmune disorders in the family.
All joints need to be examined to look for:
General signs should be looked for, such as fever, lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, or skin/nail/hair changes.
Growth should be assessed in terms of height and weight.
If JIA is suspected, ophthalmic examinations should be performed to pick up eye involvement
Blood tests may be required to rule out other conditions that mimic JIA, including:
The tests that are ordered may include tests to classify JIA:
Other tests are useful to detect the presence of autoimmune disease:
Treatment of JIA is based on stopping inflammatory activity in the joints, in order to:
Treatment of JIA is multidisciplinary.
First-line therapy is usually with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) . Care must be taken to tailor the dose to the child’s weight. In addition, precautions against gastritis should be observed, such as giving the medication with food. These drugs are most effective when the condition is oligo articular.
Systemic corticosteroids are not usually preferred in children due to the toxic effects of prolonged treatment, including growth disturbances, Cushing’s syndrome, cataracts, and osteoporosis. When absolutely required they should be used in as low doses as are necessary to provide remedial effects, and for as limited a time as possible.
In case the child does not respond to these agents, a second line of treatment is added. These are called the Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs), and include various types such as:
Trials are still underway to determine the safety of long-term use of the biologics. The main concerns appear to be that they may potentially induce infections, autoimmune phenomena, and malignancies.
Exercising the joints is essential to optimize mobility and to reduce pain. This may be done through physical exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist, or by activities such as swimming or walking. Children should always be reminded to warm up before they commence exercises as the joints are often stiff.
Psychological support may be required for children who are suffering from depression or anxiety, as well as those who have significant pain.
Permanent disability or pain may indicate the need for corrective surgery such as joint replacement.
Genetic testing is currently being evaluated for its usefulness in predicting disease course as well as in selecting the optimal therapy for various forms of JIA.