Spread Of HIV In Human Tissues Can Be Reduced By Vesicles Secreted By Certain Bacteria Strains
A study of human cells and tissues by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the University of Bologna, Italy has shown that Nano-sized vesicles
released by certain bacteria that inhabit the vagina may protect against HIV
Typically known as extracellular vesicles
, these bubble-like particles are produced by many kinds of cells and are thought to transport molecules from one cell to another. The study was led Leonid Margolis, Ph.D., of NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The study findings appears in journal Nature Communications
The medical researchers conducted a series of experiments showing that vesicles isolated from four strains of Lactobacillus bacteria interfere with the ability of HIV
to infect cells. In one experiment, researchers added vesicles
to cultures of immune cells known as T lymphocytes and infected the cultures with HIV
infection in the treated cells was much lower than in the untreated cells. When the researchers increased the quantity of vesicles, a much smaller proportion of cells were infected.
Additional studies showed that treatment with vesicles
infection in human lymph and uterine cervix and vaginal tissues. The researchers found that bacterial vesicles
suppressed the binding of viruses to the cell surface, an essential step before the virus can infect a cell.
Detailed experiments showed that bacterial vesicles
directly affect HIV
rather than cells. Exposing the viruses to vesicles reduced the appearance of surface molecules on the virus' outer covering, which it needs to attach to cells.
The researchers told Thailand Medical
News that they are studying how to use these new findings to develop preventive platforms against HIV
Reference : Ñahui Palomino, RA. Extracellular vesicles from symbiotic vaginal Lactobacilli inhibit HIV-1 infection of human tissues. Nature Communications.2019.