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The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) is a guidebook utilized by physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States as well as in many other nations of the world. DSM-5 is a standardized volume that details and classifies mental disorders for the improvement of diagnosis, treatment, and research in the psychiatry field.
The American medico-psychological association, later named as the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1918, published the earliest handbook on mental disorder classification. It consisted of 22 categories. The U.S. Army issued a reference manual for medical disorders termed as “Medical 203,” in order to formulate a standard to categorize medical illness. This was amended by the U.S. Navy.
Likewise, in 1949, the World Health Organization included a division called “Mental Disorders” in its ICD-6 (International Classification of Disease, sixth revision), which was used for payment purposes. Subsequently, the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics appointed by the APA came out with the first DSM in 1952 to provide standard information on mental disorders. The DSM was periodically revised and published as the second, third, and fourth editions. The most recent edition is the DSM-5, which was published in 2013.
Currently, the DSM-5 contains updated standards for the diagnosis of mental disorders, while the ICD carries the codes that are employed in DSM-5. All the new and revised diagnostic categories of DSM-5 have been mapped to ICD-9 codes. For this reason, some disorders in DSM-5 must share codes for recording and billing purposes. As there may be several disorders connected with the same DSM-5/ICD-9 code, the descriptions of the DSM-5 diagnosis should always be recorded by name in the medical record in addition to listing the code.
DSM-5 has three major sections: