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Source: COVID-19 Vaccine  May 19, 2020  3 years, 10 months, 4 weeks, 2 days, 2 hours, 15 minutes ago

COVID-19 Vaccine: Universal Broad Spectrum Vaccine Approach Might Not Be Feasible As Study Shows Coronaviruses Do Not Readily Induce Cross-Protective Antibody Responses

COVID-19 Vaccine: Universal Broad Spectrum Vaccine Approach Might Not Be Feasible As Study Shows Coronaviruses Do Not Readily Induce Cross-Protective Antibody Responses
Source: COVID-19 Vaccine  May 19, 2020  3 years, 10 months, 4 weeks, 2 days, 2 hours, 15 minutes ago
COVID-19 Vaccine: Researchers from University Of Hong Kong say that although individuals infected with either severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or SARS-CoV-2 produce antibodies that bind to the other coronavirus, the cross-reactive antibodies are not cross protective, at least in cell-culture experiments.
 


The research has implications that most vaccine developers trying to develop broad spectrum vaccine that can also have efficacy against a brand range of coronaviruses might be pursuing a strategy that could be futile.
 
Also it remains unclear whether such antibodies offer cross protection in the human body or potentiate disease. The researchers suggest that more research is needed to identify parts of the virus that are critical for inducing a cross-protective immune response.
 
Co-senior study author Dr Chris Mok of the University of Hong Kong told Thailand Medical News, "Since coronavirus outbreaks are likely to continue to pose global health risks in the future, the possibility of developing a cross-protective vaccine against multiple coronaviruses has been considered. Our findings, albeit limited at present, would suggest that broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies to coronaviruses might not be commonly produced by the human immune repertoire. Moving forward, monoclonal antibody discovery and characterization will be crucial to the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the short-term, as well as a cross-protective coronavirus vaccine in the long term."
 
Between 2002 to 2003, more than 8,000 people globally became ill with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), resulting in more than 700 deaths.
 
The coronavirus virus responsible for this outbreak, known as SARS-CoV, shares approximately 80% of its genomic nucleotide sequence identity with that of SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19 disease. The two coronaviruses also enter and infect cells the same way. During this process, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein, which is located on the surface of the coronavirus, binds to a human cell receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, triggering viral fusion with the host cell.
 
Previous studies have shown that protective antibodies against SARS-CoV bind to the RBD. But relatively little is known about the antibody response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is also unclear how infection with SARS-CoV influences the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, and vice versa. Gaining insight into these questions could guide the development of an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and shed light on whether such a vaccine would also cross-protect against similar viruses.

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