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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Jan 09, 2024  1 month, 1 week, 5 days, 9 hours, 56 minutes ago

Herbs And Phytochemicals: The Flavone Patuletin From Marigold Is Able To Inhibit Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus!

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Herbs And Phytochemicals: The Flavone Patuletin From Marigold Is Able To Inhibit Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Jan 09, 2024  1 month, 1 week, 5 days, 9 hours, 56 minutes ago
Herbs And Phytochemicals: Staphylococcus aureus remains a formidable human pathogen, causing a spectrum of infections from mild skin and respiratory tract issues to severe conditions like sepsis and toxic shock syndrome. Its ability to adapt and produce virulence factors underscores the challenges posed by this pathogen in clinical settings. Emerging drug-resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus also poses a major health threat.

Flowers Of Tagetes Patula 
Staphyloxanthin, a distinctive golden pigment, plays a crucial role in the bacterium's virulence, aiding its survival within the host's immune system and providing resistance to oxidative stress. Central to staphyloxanthin biosynthesis is the enzyme CrtM, making it an attractive target for developing strategies to combat S. aureus infections.
This Herbs And Phytochemicals study delves into the potential of Patuletin, a rare natural flavone extracted from the flower of Tagetes Patula (French Marigold), as an anti-virulence agent against S. aureus. By combining in vitro experiments and in silico analyses, the research not only explores the inhibitory effects of Patuletin on key virulence factors but also provides a detailed molecular understanding of its interaction with the crucial enzyme CrtM.
Flavonoids as Anti-Virulence Agents
Flavonoids have gained prominence for their diverse biological activities, including anti-virulence properties. The historical significance of natural products is reflected in the fact that nearly one-third of FDA-approved drugs from 1981 to 2014 originated from nature. Myricetin, hesperidin, and flavone are among the flavonoids that have demonstrated efficacy against S. aureus by inhibiting virulence factors. Despite its rarity, Patuletin has captured attention for its anticancer and antimicrobial potential.
In Vitro Studies - Unveiling Patuletin's Anti-Virulence Potential
The study commenced by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Patuletin, affirming its ability to hinder bacterial growth. Further investigations at a sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC) revealed Patuletin's ability to significantly reduce biofilm formation by 27% and 23% in Staphylococcus aureus isolates SA25923 and SA1, respectively. Biofilm formation, a crucial virulence factor, enhances bacterial resistance to antibiotics and contributes to persistent infections.
Moreover, Patuletin demonstrated a remarkable reduction in staphyloxanthin production by 53% and 46% in SA25923 and SA1 isolates, respectively. Staphyloxanthin, known for its role in evading host defenses, positions Patuletin as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate the detrimental effects associated with this virulence factor.
In Silico Studies - Unraveling Molecular Mechanisms
gt; To gain a deeper understanding of Patuletin's anti-virulence effects, the study employed a series of in silico analyses, including 3D-flexible alignment, molecular docking, and 200 ns molecular dynamics simulations. These computational approaches provided molecular-level insights into the interaction between Patuletin and CrtM, the enzyme crucial for staphyloxanthin biosynthesis.
The structural similarities between Patuletin and B70, the co-crystallized ligand of CrtM, laid the foundation for exploring their interaction. Molecular docking revealed a strong binding affinity between Patuletin and CrtM, with a high affinity of -20.95 kcal/mol. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations affirmed the stability of the Patuletin-CrtM complex, highlighting Patuletin's potential as a CrtM inhibitor.
In-Depth Insights into Safety and Efficacy
Comparative analyses with Remdesivir, a known antiviral drug, indicated Patuletin's favorable safety profile. Predicted as non-mutagenic and exhibiting lower carcinogenic effects, Patuletin presents a promising candidate for further therapeutic development.
The utilization of in silico methods for toxicity prediction has become a crucial asset in drug development. This approach plays a pivotal role in circumventing ethical regulations, addressing limitations in resources, and averting the time-consuming nature of traditional in vitro and in vivo studies. The comparative analysis between Patuletin and Remdesivir underscores Patuletin's favorable safety profile. Predicted as non-mutagenic in the Ames test, Patuletin contrasts with Remdesivir's mutagenic prediction. In terms of carcinogenic potency, Patuletin exhibits a higher TD50 in rats, suggesting potentially lower carcinogenic effects compared to Remdesivir. Notably, the maximum tolerated dose and oral LD50 in rats for Patuletin are higher than those for Remdesivir, indicating lower acute toxicity. Furthermore, Patuletin demonstrates a substantially higher chronic LOAEL in rats, implying very low sensitivity to adverse effects with prolonged exposure.
Addressing Limitations and Future Directions
While the initial findings are promising, certain limitations need acknowledgment. A broader range of isolates could strengthen the study's applicability to diverse strains. Moreover, to fully validate the clinical potential of Patuletin, further studies, including in vivo experiments, are essential. Additionally, gaining a deeper understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for Patuletin's anti-virulence effects will provide valuable insights into its mode of action. Given that dehydrosqualene synthase has been identified as the proposed biological target, rigorous testing to ascertain the efficacy of inhibiting this enzyme is paramount.
Future investigations will also explore the synergistic activity of Patuletin in combination with FDA-approved antibiotics. This combined approach aims to leverage the potential benefits of Patuletin in conjunction with established antibiotics to enhance their effectiveness in combating microbial infections.
Conclusion - Paving the Way for Patuletin's Therapeutic Application
In conclusion, this groundbreaking study unveils Patuletin as a potent anti-virulence agent against S. aureus, inhibiting key virulence factors both in vitro and in silico. The structural similarities and high binding affinity between Patuletin and CrtM, coupled with the stability of the Patuletin-CrtM complex, underscore its potential as a CrtM inhibitor.
The significant reduction in biofilm formation and staphyloxanthin production positions Patuletin as a valuable therapeutic agent, particularly in addressing antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections. While acknowledging certain limitations and the need for further clinical validation, this research lays the groundwork for the future exploration of Patuletin's safety and efficacy in practical medical settings. With continued research and clinical trials, Patuletin may emerge as a pioneering solution in the ongoing battle against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections, offering a fresh approach to antimicrobial therapy.
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Heliyon
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