BREAKING! Coronavirus Research Reveals That People With Blood Type A Have Higher Risk Of Contracting Covid-19 Compared To Blood Type O Which Has A Lower Risk
: An interesting new non peer-reviewed study that was conducted by 19 Chinese Medical Researchers in collaboration with eight different medical research centers and universities have concluded that individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of contracting the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and developing the Covid-19 disease irrespective of gender or age.
The study also indicated that most blood type A patients were most likely to have the disease progress into severe or critical stages compared to the rest of the blood groups.( https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.11.20031096v1.full.pdf+html
The study which is not peer-reviewed, was led by Dr Jiao Zhao from the School Of Medicine at Shenzhen University of Science and Technology and involved a meta-analysis study of the tested records of 2 713 patients from three tertiary hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen.
The ABO group in 3694 normal people in Wuhan showed a distribution of 32.16%, 24.90%, 9.10% and 33.84% for A, B, AB and O, respectively, versus the distribution of 37.75%, 26.42%, 10.03% and 25.80% for A, B, AB and O, respectively, in 1,775 COVID-19 patients from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital. The proportion of blood group A and O in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than that in normal people (both P < 0.001).
Similar ABO distribution pattern was observed in 398 patients from another two hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen. Meta-analyses on the pooled data showed that blood group A had a significantly higher risk for COVID-19 (odds ratio-OR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval-CI 1.02~1.43, P = 0.02) compared with non-A blood groups, whereas blood group O had a significantly lower risk for the infectious disease (OR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.60~0.75, P < 0.001) compared with non-O blood groups. In addition, the influence of age and gender on the ABO blood group distribution in patients with COVID-19 from two Wuhan hospitals (1,888 patients) were analyzed and found that age and gender do not have much effect on the distribution.
The findings also showed that those with blood type O had the lowest risk of contracting the Covid-19 disease compared with non-O groups.
It was noted that during the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2003, a peer-reviewed study published in JAMA also showed that the SARS virus also exhibited a similar trait in which the group O individuals had a lower risk of contracting the disease. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15784866
A study published in the Glycobiology journal in 2005 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818423
) found that anti-A antibodies specifically inhibited the adhesion of SARS-CoV S protein-expressing cells to ACE2-expressing cell lines8 . Given the nucleic acid sequence similarity9 and receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-210-12, the lower susceptibility of blood group O and higher susceptibility of blood group A for COVID-19 could be linked to the presence of natural anti-blood group antibodies, particularly anti-A antibody, in the blood. This hypothesis will need direct studies to prove. There may also be other mechanisms underlying the ABO blood group-differentiated susceptibility for COVID-19 that require further studies to elucidate.
The authors of the study state that this study may have potential clinical implications given the current COVID-19 crisis.
The first is that individuals with blood group A might need particularly strengthened personal protection to reduce the chance of infection.
The second is that SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with blood group A might need to receive more vigilant surveillance.
The third is that it might be helpful to introduce ABO blood typing in both patients and medical personal as a routine part of the management of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections, to help define the management options and assess risk exposure levels of people.
The researchers cautioned however that it should be emphasized that due certain limitations, one should be cautious to use this study to guide clinical practice at this time. This study encourages further studies.
Update: 27th March : This initial research has been superseeded by a new submission as there were corrections to the earlier one by the researchers, : https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.11.20031096v2.article-info
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