BREAKING NEWS
Source: Thailand Medical News  Oct 24, 2019  3 years ago
Selenium Helps To Reduce HIV Viral Loads and Also Prevent CD4 Levels From Declining
Selenium Helps To Reduce HIV Viral Loads and Also Prevent CD4 Levels From Declining
Source: Thailand Medical News  Oct 24, 2019  3 years ago
From 2007 to 2018, there has been more than 37 studies that show that Selenium supplementation is good for HIV patients. Selenium supplementation has demonstrated the ability to reduce viral loads of the HIV virus while also preventing CD4 levels from declining and helping it achieve moderate gains.


 
Todate, there are been no known reactions or contraindications for those taking antiretrovirals and the mineral has not shown any adverse reactions with any known antiretrovirals or combo therapies so far.
 
Selenium, required by the body in small amounts, is a trace mineral that is essential to good health. Found in a number of plant-based foods, selenium is incorporated into proteins to make important antioxidant enzymes called selenoproteins. These selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals. Free radicals are natural by-products of oxygen metabolism that may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as immune deficiency, cancer, and heart disease.

Some studies have indicated that selenium levels can become decreased in people living with HIV. Low levels have been shown to be predictive of death in HIV-positive adults and children and have been linked to various irregularities  such as diminished natural killer cell activity and a greater risk of mycobacterial infections  often seen in the setting of HIV
 
One hypothesis holds that selenium's antioxidant properties may repair damage done to immune cells by oxygen, which is produced at higher levels in the bodies of patients with HIV.
 
Laboratory experiments have shown that selenium has an inhibitory effect on HIV ; in vitro through antioxidant effects of glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins. Numerous studies have reported low selenium status in HIV-infected individuals, and serum selenium concentration declines with disease progression. Some cohort studies have shown an association between selenium deficiency and progression to AIDS or mortality. In several randomized controlled trials, selenium supplementation has reduced hospitalizations and diarrheal morbidity, and improved CD4(+) cell counts
 
Selenium is a non-metal similar to sulphur in its chemical properties. In large amounts it is toxic, but in trace amounts it enables organisms to produce enzymes that help cells to function.
 
While too little selenium can cause serious health problems, too much selenium can also be toxic. Selenosis is a serious disease caused by taking too much selenium. The upper tolerance level in humans is about 400 micrograms a day. Selenosis causes stomach problems, loss of hair and nails, liver and brain damage. It can be fatal.
 
The recommended selenium  intake for adults aged 18  years and above with HIV is 60 mcg per day
 
One of the best way to obtain Selenium is thru your diets. These are some foods that are rich in Selenium.


 
Brazil Nuts
Brazil nuts are one of the best sources of selenium. One ounce, or about six to eight nuts, contains about 544 mcg. Make sure you only eat a serving of Brazil nuts  a few times a week to avoid selenium toxicity.
 
Fish
Yellowfin tuna contains about 92 mcg of selenium per 3 ounces (oz), making it an excellent source of selenium. This is followed by sardines, oysters, clams, halibut, shrimp, salmon, and crab, which contain amounts between 40 and 65 mcg.
 
Enriched Foods
Some products, including pastas, whole wheat breads, and whole grain cereals, are enriched  or fortified with selenium and other minerals. The amount of selenium in these products will vary, but you can typically get up to 40 mcg per 1 cup serving of noodles or cereal, and about 16 mcg from 2 slices of whole grain toast. Just make sure you balance enriched foods with plenty of whole, plant-based foods for optimal nutrition.
 
Pork
Three ounces of lean pork contain about 33 mcg of selenium.
 
Beef
The selenium content of beef depends on the cut, but a bottom round beef steak will provide you with about 33 mcg. Beef liver provides about 28 mcg, and ground beef offers about 18 mcg.
 
Turkey
You can get 31 mcg of selenium from 3 oz of boneless turkey. Eat a turkey sandwich on fortified whole wheat bread for extra selenium.
 
Chicken
Chicken will give you about 22 to 25 mcg of selenium per 3 oz of white meat. This translates to a serving that’s similar in size to a deck of cards, making it an easy way to add some selenium to your diet.
 
Cottage Cheese
One cup of cottage cheese provides about 20 mcg, or 30 percent of your daily recommended intake of selenium.
 
Eggs
One hard-boiled egg provides about 20 mcg of selenium. Don’t like hard-boiled? No worries, go for eggs cooked any way you like, and you’ll still get a dose of selenium.
 
Brown Rice
One cup of cooked long-grain brown rice will provide you with 19 mcg of selenium, or 27 percent of the recommended daily amount. Enjoy this grain with your favorite 3 oz portion of chicken or turkey to get up to 50 mcg of selenium — almost the entire recommended daily amount for adults. You can also substitute rice for barley which provides 23mcg per 1/3 cup serving.
 
Sunflower Seeds
A quarter cup of  sunflower seeds provides almost 19 mcg of selenium, making them a great snack, especially if you don’t eat animal products, which tend to have higher levels of selenium.
 
Baked Beans
Enjoy a cup of baked beans and you’ll get about 13 mcg of selenium along with some important fiber.
 
Mushrooms
Mushrooms are fungi that contain many nutrients, including vitamin D, iron, and about 12 mcg of selenium in a 100-gram serving. 
 
Oatmeal
One cup of regular oatmeal, cooked, will give you 13 mcg of selenium. Enjoy it for breakfast with two eggs to get 53 mcg.
 
Spinach
Spinach, cooked from frozen, will provide you with about 11 mcg of selenium per cup. It’s also packed full of folic acid and vitamin C.
 
Milk &Yoghurt
Milk and yogurt each contain about 8 mcg of selenium per cup, or 11 percent of your needs per day. Add some milk to your enriched cereal to up your intake.
 
Lentils
One cup of cooked lentils provides about 6 mcg of selenium, plus a healthy dose of protein and fiber. Add them to a soup with mushrooms for a vegan-friendly meal full of selenium.
 
Cashews
Dry roasted cashewnuts offer 3 mcg per ounce. That may not seem like much, but every bit helps, especially if you follow a vegan diet. Snack on some dry roasted cashews and you’ll get a small amount of selenium, at 3 mcg per one ounce serving.
 
Bananas
One cup of chopped banana offers 2 mcg of selenium, or 3 percent of your daily recommended intake. Again, this might not seem like much, but most fruits offer only minimal traces of selenium or none at all. Add bananas to a smoothie with yogurt or your favorite oatmeal for more selenium.
 
All individuals with HIV are advised to consult their doctors before making any dietary changes or even before taking any Selenium supplements. Also when procuring Selenium supplements, make you go for trusted brands and the form used and also do some due diligence. Avoid brands made in Asia and those by multi-level or direct selling companies and also house brands of US retailers. Thailand Medical News highly recommends products by Life Extension Or Now Foods from the US .
 
References: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47509055_Role_of_selenium_in_HIV_infection Top of Form
 

 

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