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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Jan 30, 2024  3 weeks, 4 days, 22 hours, 24 minutes ago

COVID-19 News: Scientist In Brazil Develop Synthetic Peptide Based On Defensin Found In Fire Salamander That Can Serve As A SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral!

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COVID-19 News: Scientist In Brazil Develop Synthetic Peptide Based On Defensin Found In Fire Salamander That Can Serve As A SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Jan 30, 2024  3 weeks, 4 days, 22 hours, 24 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: The persistent threat of zoonotic diseases has garnered significant attention, particularly in the aftermath of the recent global pandemic. The urgency for scientific preparedness has never been more apparent, emphasizing the need for innovative approaches in drug development. In this pursuit, researchers at the Universidade de Brasília in Brazil have made a groundbreaking discovery - a synthetic peptide based on a novel defensin found in the transcriptome of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra). This synthetic peptide, named SS-I, covered in this COVID-19 News report, has demonstrated promising antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19.


Synthetic Peptide Based On Defensin Found In Fire Salamander That
Can Serve As A SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral

 
Exploring Amphibian Defensins
Amphibians, including salamanders, have long been recognized as rich sources of bioactive compounds, particularly antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In a comprehensive study, researchers identified the first bioactive peptide, SS-I, from the transcriptome analysis of Salamandra salamandra. This synthetic peptide belongs to the defensin family, known for its antimicrobial properties. The identification and characterization of SS-I were achieved through advanced techniques such as MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, unveiling a potential game-changer in the fight against viral infections.
 
Understanding the Molecular Mechanism
To understand the potential antiviral action of SS-I, researchers conducted molecular docking assays, hypothesizing interactions between the synthetic peptide and the active binding site of the spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD) with the host cell receptor ACE2. The SARS-CoV-2 virus relies on the spike glycoprotein for host cell entry, making the RBD a critical target for antiviral interventions. The in-silico analysis suggested stable interactions between SS-I and both the spike protein and ACE2, paving the way for further exploration.
 
Antimicrobial Peptides as Therapeutic Agents
The rise of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens poses a significant threat to public health, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Natural peptides, especially those belonging to the defensin family, present a promising avenue. Defensins are abundant cysteine-rich AMPs with demonstrated antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. The versatility of peptides, characterized by high specificity, effectiveness, and easy production, positions them as potential candidates for drug development.
 
Amphibians as Reservoirs of Bioactive Compounds
Amphibians, including the widely distributed European fire salamander, have granular glands in their skin that synthesize and secrete a diverse array of peptides as part of their innate immune defense system. The fire salamander's skin secretion, in particular, has been found to contain compounds with toxic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Biopro specting and characterizing molecules from amphibians are strategically relevant for the development of drugs for viral and bacterial treatment.
 
Discovery of SS-I: A Defensin with Potential
The identification of SS-I, a novel β-defensin antimicrobial peptide, marks a significant milestone in the quest for effective antiviral agents. The sequence similarity between SS-I and other β-defensin AMPs from various animals suggests a shared functional role. The 3D molecular docking analysis provided insights into the potential interactions between SS-I and the ACE2 receptor and the spike protein, highlighting the synthetic peptide's affinity for crucial components of the SARS-CoV-2 infection process.
 
Molecular Dynamics Simulations Unveil Stability
In-depth molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to assess the stability of the complexes formed between SS-I and ACE2/spike proteins. The analysis revealed that the complexes involving SS-I exhibited higher frequencies of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges, indicating enhanced stability. The simulations provided a detailed understanding of the dynamic interactions at the molecular level, supporting the potential efficacy of SS-I in inhibiting viral infection.
 
In Vitro Assessments: Balancing Antiviral Efficacy and Safety
To translate the in-silico findings into practical applications, researchers conducted in vitro assessments of the cytotoxic and hemolytic effects of synthetic SS-I. The results indicated that the synthetic peptide exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, with an EC50 of 2.7 μM. Importantly, the peptide demonstrated hemolytic activity without exhibiting significant cytotoxicity at the antiviral concentration. This balance between antiviral efficacy and safety suggests the therapeutic relevance of SS-I.
 
Challenges and Future Directions
While the synthetic SS-I has shown promising antiviral potential, challenges remain, particularly regarding its hemolytic activity. Further research into SS-I-derived fragments may offer a solution, potentially enhancing antimicrobial activity while reducing adverse effects. Regio-specific disulfide bond formation and structure–activity studies could provide deeper insights into the peptide's antiviral mechanisms. Additionally, techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallography are needed to fully characterize the peptide structure and its interactions with ACE2 and spike proteins.
 
Conclusion
The discovery of SS-I, a synthetic peptide inspired by a novel defensin found in the fire salamander, opens new avenues in the search for effective antiviral agents against COVID-19. The comprehensive study, encompassing bioinformatics, molecular dynamics simulations, and in vitro assessments, provides a holistic understanding of SS-I's potential. As the world grapples with the ongoing challenges of viral infections and antimicrobial resistance, the exploration of natural compounds and innovative drug development strategies remains paramount. SS-I, with its unique properties and antiviral efficacy, stands as a testament to the potential of amphibian-derived peptides in the fight against infectious diseases. Further research and development efforts are crucial to harness the full therapeutic potential of SS-I and similar bioactive compounds, contributing to the arsenal of tools available for the management of viral and bacterial infections.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Pharmaceutics.
https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/16/2/190
 
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