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Source: Thailand Medical News Easy Weekend Reads  Nov 02, 2019  3 years ago
TMN Weekend Best Medical Study And Research Findings
TMN Weekend Best Medical Study And Research Findings
Source: Thailand Medical News Easy Weekend Reads  Nov 02, 2019  3 years ago


Study Discovers Fatty Acid Derivatives That Kills Colorectal Cancer Cells.


Medical Researchers from York University, Canada have discovered that the fatty-acid derivative, palmitoylcarnitine destroys colorectal cancer cells by depleting glutathione access to tehse cells which are critical for their survival and growth.

The HT29 and HCT 116 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells are sensitive to palmitoylcarnitine due in part to an inability to prevent oxidative stress through glutathione-redox coupling thereby rendering the cells sensitive to elevations in H2O2. These findings suggest that the relationship between inherent metabolic capacities and redox regulation is altered early in response to palmitoylcarnitine.

These findings could pave the way for therapeutic drugs to treat colorectal cancer


Reference: The fatty acid derivative palmitoylcarnitine abrogates colorectal cancer cell survival by depleting glutathione ,Patrick C Turnbull, Meghan C. Hughes ,Christopher G.R. Perry,  American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00319.2019


Study Involving Cancer Immunotherapy Drugs Effects On Kidney Stumbles On Discovery That PPIs Causes Acute Kidney Injury.

A research by Massachusetts General Hospital lead by Dr Meghan Sise and Dr Harish Seethapathy to assess the effects of cancer immunotherapy drugs on kidneys stumbled upon the finds that PPIs which are commonly used to treat stomach ulcers or acid reflux, was associated with a higher risk of experiencing sustained Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

Reference: AKI with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Push Beyond Case,  Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology https://cjasn.asnjournals.org/ doi: 10.2215/CJN.12621019.
 


Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) Offers Patients With Advanced Head And Neck Cancers Longer Survival Time

A new global study led by Yale Cancer Center  has shown that the checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda) offers patients with advanced head and neck cancers longer survival time.

According to Dr Barbara Burtness, key investigator form the KEYNOTE-048 clinical trial, the findings show overall survival was significantly improved through a phase 3 study for participants with previously untreated recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancers, compared to the standard therapy.


Reference: Pembrolizumab alone or with chemotherapy versus cetuximab with chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (KEYNOTE-048): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study,The Lancet  Prof Barbara Burtness, MD Prof Kevin J Harrington, PhD,Prof Richard Greil, MD, Denis Soulières, MD, Prof Makoto Tahara, MD, et al. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32591-7
 


A Kinase Identified As Possible Target To Treat Heart Failure

An unexplored kinase in heart muscle cells may be a good target to treat heart failure, a disease that is only incrementally delayed by existing therapies. Failing human hearts showed reduced amounts of this kinase, and preclinical experiments showed that restoring the amount of this kinase in a kinase-depleted mouse model rescued the animal from heart failure, according to a  study led by University Of Alabama at Birmingham researcher Dr Hind Lal,Ph.D.

Heart failure, especially in the months or years after heart attacks, is a prevalent, costly and growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.

The signaling kinase is HIPK2. While several hundred protein kinases have been identified in heart muscle cells of failing human hearts, study has so far neglected the majority of highly expressed heart kinases, including HIPK2.


Reference: Cardiomyocyte HIPK2 Maintains Basal Cardiac Function via ERK Signaling,Yuanjun Guo,Jennifer Y. Sui, Xiaoyan A. Qu, Young-Jae Nam, Robert N. Willette, Joey V. Barnett, Bjorn C. Knollmann, Thomas Force, Hind Lal, et al. The Circulation Journal, https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.040740
 


Mom's Diabetes May Impair Development Of Baby's Kidneys

The incidence of diabetes mellitus has significantly increased among women of childbearing age. A new study by the University of Pittsburg shows that prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of associated congenital anomalies of the kidney. Congenital anomalies of the kidney are amongst the leading causes of chronic kidney disease in children. 

Reference: n utero exposure to maternal diabetes impairs nephron progenitor differentiation.Debora M. Cerqueira, Shelby Lynn Hemker,Andrew J Bodnar,Daniella M. Ortiz, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00204.2019
 


Heavy Smoking Can Have A Damaging Effect On Facial Ageing

Heavy smoking may have a causal effect on facial ageing, according to new research led by the University of Bristol. The study searched across 18,000 traits from the UK Biobank cohort to identify those that may be affected by how heavily someone smokes. As well as recognising several known adverse effects such as on lung health, the research also found heavy smoking could influence appearance.

The study was led by the University's MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) and also supported by the NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Centre (BRC).

The researchers wanted to demonstrate a new approach that could be used to systematically test for causal effects across thousands of outcomes, by combining two existing methods: the Mendelian randomization phenome-wide association study approach and gene-by-environment interaction tests. To test their new method, the Bristol team searched for the effects of heavy smoking using the UK Biobank cohort.

The research team found their approach worked, as their results included several known effects of heavier smoking e.g. on lung function. They also identified an interesting potential effect of heavier smoking on more facial ageing
.


Reference: Louise A. C. Millard, Marcus R. Munafò, Kate Tilling, Robyn E. Wootton, George Davey Smith. MR-pheWAS with stratification and interaction: Searching for the causal effects of smoking heaviness identified an effect on facial aging. PLOS Genetics, 2019; 15 (10): e1008353 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008353


Compiled and summarized by Thailand Medical News For Easy Weekend Reads.
 

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