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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Feb 09, 2024  1 week, 4 days, 21 hours, 37 minutes ago

Researchers Warn That COVID-19 Jabs Can Cause Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases!

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Researchers Warn That COVID-19 Jabs Can Cause Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Feb 09, 2024  1 week, 4 days, 21 hours, 37 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: In the midst of the global battle against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the rapid development and widespread deployment of COVID-19 vaccines have heralded a new chapter in the fight against the virus. However, amidst the triumph of vaccination efforts, emerging reports covered in this COVID-19 News coverage, from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou Medical Center in Taiwan and various esteemed Taiwanese research institutions have raised concerns regarding a potential correlation between COVID-19 vaccines and the development of central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CNS IDDs).


COVID-19 Jabs Can Cause Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases
 
Central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases encompass a diverse array of disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), optic neuritis (ON), and transverse myelitis (TM). While MS remains the most prevalent, NMOSD and MOGAD are characterized by autoantibodies targeting aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), respectively.
 
Epidemiological Overview
The global burden of CNS IDDs is significant, with MS affecting approximately 2.1 per 100,000 person-years and NMOSD exhibiting a prevalence of 0.52–10 per 100,000 people, with notable disparities across different ethnic populations. MOGAD, although relatively rare, presents a median age of onset in the early to mid-thirties, predominantly affecting females and manifesting in diverse clinical phenotypes, including ON, TM, and ADEM.
 
Controversial Relationship Between Vaccination and CNS IDDs
While ADEM is traditionally recognized as a post-infectious condition, the association between vaccination and ADEM remains a topic of debate, with conflicting findings in epidemiological studies. While vaccine-related ADEM accounts for less than 5% of ADEM cases, the definitive link between vaccination and ADEM remains elusive, necessitating further investigation.
 
The Advent of COVID-19 Vaccines and Associated Risks
The urgency of combating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has propelled the development of various COVID-19 vaccines, encompassing viral vector vaccines (e.g., AstraZeneca, Janssen, Sputnik V, CanSino), mRNA vaccines (e.g., Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna), inactivated vaccines (e.g., Sinovac, Sinopharm, Covaxin), and protein subunit vaccines (e.g., Medigen). However, alongside the triumph of vaccination efforts, reports of adverse events, such as vaccines-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and Guillain - Barre syndrome, have surfaced, prompting concerns about the safety profile of specific vaccine formulations.
 
Emerging Concerns: COVID-19 Vaccines and CNS IDDs
Recent reports have underscored a burgeoning concern regarding the potentia l association between COVID-19 vaccines and CNS IDDs. Through an in-depth analysis, focusing on a compelling case of MOGAD following AstraZeneca vaccination and reviewing an additional 78 reported cases spanning from January 2020 to October 2022, researchers have endeavored to elucidate the intricate relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and CNS IDDs.
 
There could be much more such cases as many are unaware have yet to get proper post vaccination health screenings done are possibly attributing the symptoms, they are currently suffering from to other causes mistakenly.
 
Analysis of Patient Demographics and Vaccine Types
Among the 79 patients with COVID-19 vaccines-related CNS IDDs, distinct patterns emerged concerning patient demographics and vaccine types. Notably, 62% of cases were associated with viral vector vaccines, 25.3% with mRNA vaccines, and 12.7% with inactivated vaccines. Further analysis revealed a higher incidence of CNS IDDs among males following viral vector vaccines, while recipients of mRNA vaccines tended to be older. Intriguingly, a correlation was observed between vaccine types and the presence of autoantibodies, with mRNA and inactivated vaccines exhibiting a higher prevalence of anti-AQP4 antibodies, whereas viral vector vaccines were more frequently associated with anti-MOG antibodies.
 
Clinical Presentations and Laboratory Examinations
The clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of CNS IDDs post-COVID-19 vaccination were analyzed comprehensively. Patients receiving viral vector vaccines often experienced symptom onset after the first dose, whereas those receiving mRNA vaccines exhibited symptoms following either the first or second dose. Notably, differences in CSF pleocytosis and spinal cord lesions were observed among vaccine groups, with spinal cord lesions with gadolinium enhancement being most prevalent in patients vaccinated with mRNA formulations.
 
Potential Molecular Mimicry and Immunological Cross-Reactivity
The underlying pathophysiology of vaccines-induced CNS IDDs remains enigmatic, yet hypotheses invoking molecular mimicry and immunological cross-reactivity have garnered attention. Protein sequence analysis has revealed potential amino acid similarities between the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and AQP4/MOG, suggesting the plausibility of immunological cross-reactivity and autoimmune dysregulation.
 
Conclusion
While the overarching safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines are widely acknowledged, concerns regarding the potential association with CNS IDDs underscore the need for continued vigilance and research. The observed correlations between vaccine types, patient demographics, and autoimmune markers provide valuable insights into the complex interplay between vaccination and neurological health. Nonetheless, the rarity of CNS IDDs post-vaccination should not overshadow the overwhelming benefits of vaccination in mitigating the impact of the ongoing pandemic.
 
Moving forward, larger-scale studies and longitudinal analyses are imperative to unravel the precise mechanisms underlying vaccine-related CNS IDDs and inform evidence-based strategies for vaccine selection and monitoring. By leveraging a nuanced understanding of the immunological landscape and molecular interactions, clinicians and researchers can optimize vaccination strategies and mitigate the risk of adverse neurological outcomes, ensuring the continued success of global vaccination efforts in combating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
 
The study findings were published on a preprint server and are currently being peer reviewed.
https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202402.0500/v1
 
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