COVID-19 Supplements: Studies Show That NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) Could Play A Key Role In Treating COVID-19 And Long COVID
: Various studies are now showing that NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) plays a key role in the COVID-19 disease and also in long COVID and that NAD+ supplementation can help in a variety of ways
There are already studies showing that individuals who suffer from NAD+ deficiency are at higher risk of mortality when contracting COVID-19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987720314742?via%3Dihub
Yet another study shows that SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection and PARP expression dysregulates the NAD metabolome, an actionable component of innate immunity. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.17.047480v6
This depletion of NAD+ in the human host as a result of COVID-19 and the resulting deterioration in conditions is also confirmed by another study. https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202003.0346/v1
Another research paper hypothesized that elderly COVID-19 patients are at a real risk of complications due to impaired immune function, cytokine storm and defective respiratory function. Administration of anti-ageing immunomodulation factors like Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD+ can minimize these changes through its potent immunomodulation and longevity effects. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876034120304986
Before we expound as to how NAD+ plays a role in COVID-19, we are going to first briefly understand about two key subjects first: a protein channeled by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus called mTOR and about SIRT1 activators that keep mTOR at bay.
Human cells must take in nutrients and convert them into energy (through metabolism) to create building blocks (by gene expression) in order to grow and to replicate. This process is extremely efficient and highly coordinated, requiring detailed and specialized proteins that work in sync like an orchestra, however every orchestra requires a conductor. For cells, in times of growth, that conductor is the target-of-rapamycin protein, or mTOR.
Studies have linked mTOR and its role in cellular growth and replication as heavily linked to a variety of illnesses and conditions. For example, genetic mutations in cancer cells hijack the ability for mTOR to control this pathway, keeping the growth cycle completely open. This is how cancer cells can rapidly reproduce, manifesting as large tumors in record time. Interestingly, the reach of mTOR in disease extends far past cancer.
Studies examining the process of aging have also found benefits to studying mTOR. Researchers believe mTOR has a significant role with cellular senescence, mitochondrial function, and the ability for cells to recycle their components (autophagy) – all various ways mTOR may shorten lifespan. In scientific research, shutting down this protein has led to increasing lifespan in many animal models though we are still a few years away from a human-clinical breakthrough. And yet, there are
many natural compounds already available that have shown they can in fact change this cycle. These anti-aging nutrients have proven to be powerful regulators of mTOR, reducing its impact on disease. The study of supplements and nutraceuticals and the way they can improve health is of vital importance in these fields and now may prove even more relevant as we confront a new assault known as COVID-19.
The main role of viruses is simply to replicate, and they can do this in various ways. The most well-evidenced is by penetrating a cell’s membrane and injecting a small section of DNA encoded for one goal: to take control of the host cell. The DNA embeds itself into the cell’s genetic blueprint and redirects it to create more of the virus until the cell explodes, releasing thousands of copies of the virus into the body. Each one seeking a new cell to convert to their next manufacturing plant.
Comprehending how viruses control this process is key to learning how to fight them. In the case of COVID-19, previous studies on other coronaviruses show that they are likely hijacking the protein mTOR. In a new study, scientists have confirmed that much like its predecessors, COVID-19 acts in a similar manner, using mTOR to initiate the growing and replication mechanics of the cell that help the virus create the many components it needs for its army. https://www.immunology.ox.ac.uk/covid-19/covid-19-immunology-literature-reviews/dysregulation-in-mtor-hif-1-signaling-identified-by-proteo-transcriptomics-of-sars-cov-2-infected-cells
Previously, researchers have used this information to see how viable halting mTOR may be in H1N1 pneumonia and in MERS-CoV cases, showing it helped significantly to reduce the spread of the viral infection. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29143192/
With this information, scientists are already looking to create new therapies that target mTOR in hopes of fighting the severity of COVID-19.
Certain researchers believe that activating anti-aging protein SIRT1 might give us a fighting chance against COVID-19.
Sirtuins are a family of proteins that play an important role in cellular health and work to keep cell functions balanced. They have many roles, as the family is quite large, but they all work to keep our DNA safe from damage. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18419308/
Normally, our DNA is kept wound tight in bunches called histones. When our cell needs to create a specific protein, a series of actions unwind our DNA so that it can be easily read and translated into proteins to get these jobs done. When unwound, our DNA is vulnerable to damage that can cause mutations in the DNA and disrupt normal cellular functions. It’s up to the family of Sirtuins to help close these histones up. Thus, Sirtuins (like SIRT1) are an essential protective measure to our DNA and cellular health.
However SIRT1 also has another function. When activated, SIRT1 also works to shut off mTOR, preventing excessive growth and replication that can be stressful to the cell. In the case of viral infection, SIRT1 has been shown to be a natural regulator of mTOR, repressing it and slowing down the virus’s intent to replicate. By cutting down the replication machinations, the body’s natural immune defense has a better chance of identifying and restricting the progress of the virus. Moreover, other studies have shown that many of the Sirtuin family, including SIRT1, exhibit natural antiviral properties. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4271551/
SIRT1 then manages endothelial repair, cellular autophagy and the downregulation of tumour necrosis factor alpha through its inhibitory action on tumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE). In so doing it also controls IL1 and IL6.
Sirtuin1, or SIRT1, has only one known activator a specialized co-enzyme called NAD+. Studies have shown that NAD+ Naturally Boosts SIRT1 Level.
One of the important things NAD+ does is enable sirtuin activation. Sirtuins are a family of seven NAD+ dependent signalling proteins that are intrinsically involved in metabolic regulation and cellular homeostasis.
Several nutrients can be metabolized into NAD+ precursors, such as resveratrol, quercetin and even vitamin B3.These nutrients have been universally proclaimed for their natural anti-aging properties, scientifically shown to boost SIRT1 but if you’re looking to improve your NAD+ levels, wouldn’t you rather go right to the source?
The novelty of NAD+ supplements is just now really hitting the market, with significant research to support it. For years, NAD+ IV’s have been used to boost the body’s ability to efficiently heal by improving the cell’s ability to recycle necessary components. This process, called autophagy, is one of the best ways the body can improve longevity. NAD+ has become a proficient and effective promoter of this process, aiding in regeneration and activating SIRT1 to keep DNA safe. The research is there and so is the clinical relevancy. It has been known for some time that the current trends of westernized diet and lifestyle have drastically harmed our production of NAD+.
Now coming back to COVID-19, it has been found that those at most risk from COVID-19 all share a common underlying factor, low NAD+.
When it comes to COVID-19 sirtuins perform 2 crucial functions 1) Sirtuins are a powerful weapon that the body uses to combat both DNA and RNA viruses. COVID-19 is a RNA based virus 2) Sirtuins are also a crucial component of the body’s mechanism to control inflammation and prevent cytokine storms.
During the activation of sirtuins NAD+ is consumed and zinc is bound to the activating sirtuin. Sirtuins need to activate sufficiently in response to a COVID-19 infection. If either NAD+ or zinc is in short supply activation will be impacted.
NAD+ naturally declines as we age, but this decline is unnaturally accelerated in those who are obese, have hyperinsulinaemia or high levels of oxidative stress. All the individuals most vulnerable to COVID-19 would be expected to have low levels of NAD+. COVID-19 high risk factors include: age 65+, Obesity, type2 diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions resulting from high levels of oxidative stress. The common factor to all the above conditions is low NAD+.
Importantly we can all boost our NAD+ levels. This does not only apply to prevention before contracting COVID-19, but also applies to those suffering long haul symptoms many experience post recovery.
Also besides low NAD+ levels increasing one’s risk from COVID-19, we now know that the virus has another nasty action. COVID-19 depletes NAD+ through its activation of PARP. This NAD+ depletion causes a serious condition called pellagra and in addition low NAD+ is such a serious problem that your body hijacks tryptophan to make NAD+ at the expense of serotonin. It is no surprise that long haul symptoms take on a new light when compared to symptoms of Pellagra (NAD+/ niacin deficiency) and low serotonin (tryptophan depletion).
Interestingly pellagra, a nicotinic acid deficiency (niacin, B3), rarely seen today shares certain parallels in COVID-19 patients. Pellagra is a deficiency that causes low NAD+ resulting in numerous symptoms in metabolically active tissues. Incidentally the last major pellagra outbreak occurred in the south-east USA. When comparing symptoms of pellagra to long haul Covid-19, the symptoms are virtually interchangeable ie dermatitis, diarrhoea, fatigue, apathy, raised temperature loss of smell, loss of taste, loss of hair, skin lesions, mouth ulcers, aggression , insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, ataxia, paralysis of extremities, peripheral neuritis, oedema, nutritional deficiency cardiomyopathy, multi-organ failure, dementia and death.
It is now known that COVID-19 causes low NAD+ and that this low NAD+ results in COVID-19 Induced Secondary Pellagra (CISP), and that pellagra and long-haul symptoms are the same. These long haul NAD+ symptoms also respond to treatment with nicotinic acid (niacin) with great success.
NAD+ is a fundamental housekeeping molecule that catalyzes electron transfer in metabolic reduction-oxidation reactions, functioning as an electron shuttle in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is crucial for energy production. Many COVID-19 and post COVID patients experience tiredness and loss of energy and fatigue and NAD depletion can be blamed for this.
Many COVID long haul individuals have poor effort tolerance, fast heart rates, lack of smell and taste and hair that is falling out, often to be told its just anxiety.
There needs to be unbundling of the COVID Induced Secondary Pellagra symptoms related to NAD+ deficiency and the serotonin depletion symptoms caused by a low tryptophan.
Studies in animal models have already shown that NAD+ supplementation helps with COVID-19. https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-96999/v1/2c337e43-ba6f-4b48-9129-3c39ee884a7b.pdf
There are currently clinical trials underway that are using NAD+ supplementation to treat COVID-19 with results that have yet to be published showing positive effects. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04407390
However before anyone starts taking NAD+ supplements, always consult your doctor first and also if you think that you have COVID-19, report to the nearest health facility to get yourself tested. Never try to self-treat.
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