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Source: Anti-Inflammatory Drugs  Jun 02, 2020  2 years ago
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: APPA (Apocynin And Paeonol)- New Anti-Inflammatory Drug That Does Not Weaken Host Defense To Infection Even For COVID-19
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: APPA (Apocynin And Paeonol)- New Anti-Inflammatory Drug That Does Not Weaken Host Defense To Infection Even For COVID-19
Source: Anti-Inflammatory Drugs  Jun 02, 2020  2 years ago
Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Researchers from the University of Liverpool and AKL Research and Development Ltd (AKLRD), have developed a new anti-inflammatory drug called APPA that has anti-inflammatory properties but without weakening host defense to infection. The drug could be useful in treating COVID-1 cytokine storms.

The research was published in the journal: Inflammopharmacology and highlights the potential benefits of the new drug treatment on the human body’s immune response in inflammation. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10787-020-00715-5

It was observed in a number of inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and, more recently, COVID-19, major complications and extensive tissue damage can occur when the immune system becomes excessively and uncontrollably activated. Finding new ways to selectively control this over-activity could have major clinical benefits.

In order to remain healthy, we need an effective immune response; otherwise we would succumb to overwhelming infection, even by everyday bacteria. However, sometimes our immune system can become hyperactive and cause damage through inflammation, even in the absence of any infection. This can sometimes be extreme. Indeed, many rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are caused by inflammation. The quest has always been to find ways to selectively block the harmful effects of an overactive immune system, without paying the price of blocking our ability to fight infections.

Typically, neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in our blood. They are rapidly dispatched to sites of infection, where they fulfill their life-saving antimicrobial functions by destroying infectious organisms and producing signaling proteins called cytokines, that help co-ordinate the recruitment and activity of other immune system cells to the battle against the infection. There is much evidence from work in Liverpool to show that these cells are important players behind many rheumatic diseases

However, in some situations, if the levels of cytokines are too high, they can trigger an extreme inflammatory reaction called a cytokine storm. These storms cause overwhelming inflammation that leads to blocked or ruptured blood vessels. This can affect the entire circulatory system. Cytokine storms can cause immense damage, multiple organ failure, sepsis, and even death and, appear to play a major role in severe COVID-19 disease.

For eons researchers and clinicians have understood the potential benefit of suppressing neutrophils, but any attempt to do this without weakening the immune response to infection has failed.

APPA (apocynin and paeonol) is a novel drug under development by AKLRD for use in osteoarthritis, a major disabling problem world-wide that is caused by low grade inflammation. The first part of its formal clinical evaluation in Liverpool, led by rheumatologist Professor Robert Moots, has recently been successfully completed. Now, in partnership between Liverpool and AKLRD, the impact of the drug on neutrophils has been examined and published.

The research found that APPA clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory potential but without weakening host defense to infection.

Professor of Rheumatology at the Uni versity of Liverpool and Director for Research and Development at Aintree University Hospital, Dr Robert Moots said, “We have shown that APPA has the potential to dampen down that bad inflammation that causes rheumatic diseases  but not impact on the crucial antimicrobial function of neutrophils. We have been waiting for too many years for such a selective drug. Our results suggest a prime role for APPA in helping safely modify aggressive immune response, not only in the arthritis that I treat every day, but even, potentially, in COVID-19.”

A neutrophil scientist on the project at University of Liverpool, Professor Dr Steve Edwards said,  “Therapeutically targeting the harmful effects of neutrophils in inflammation, without interfering with their ability to fight off infections, has been a long-term goal of many scientists worldwide. At last, we may be able now to realise this goal.”

CEO of AKLRD, Dr David Miles, said, “These exciting results underpin the favorable clinical results observed in patients with Osteoarthritis, whilst also suggesting APPA has an important role to play in treating a broad range of conditions where inflammation is involved.”

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Feb 05, 2020  2 years ago
Source : Thailand Medical news