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Diabetes insipidus is a condition that affects the body's ability to regulate its fluid content.
The main symptoms of the condition are:
Diabetes insipidus is caused by either inadequate levels or malfunction of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is involved in regulating body fluid. Also known of as vasopressin, ADH is manufactured in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until its release. In healthy individuals, when the body fluids are depleted, ADH is released from the pituitary gland and prevents the kidneys from excreting fluids in the form of urine.
Among people with diabetes insipidus, however, this process is interrupted in one of two ways, and which way it is interrupted determines which of the following types of diabetes insipidus a patient has:
For mild cranial diabetes insipidus, no treatment may be required and simply drinking enough water may compensate for excessive urination. In more severe cases, a synthetic version of ADH called desmopressin may be prescribed. Another medication that can treat the condition is thiazide diuretics, which reduce the amount of urine produced by the kidneys.