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Urine analysis, also known as urinalysis, encompasses all the analytical tests carried out on a urine sample. It usually involves three forms of analysis:
Urine analysis may be required as part of:
Urine analysis encompasses the following testing procedures:
This test involves dipping a test strip embedded with colored fields into a urine sample for a few seconds. Depending on the concentration of the particular substance being testing for, the fields on the test strip change color. By using the color table on the test package as reference, one can see if any compounds exhibit abnormal urinary levels.
The following can be analysed:
This involves centrifugation of a urine sample. Following this, the obtained sediment is spread on a slide and analysed microscopically to study components such as:
As with all tests, the results of urine tests are not always reliable. For this reason, a more detailed laboratory test is suggested following which abnormal results can be discussed with a doctor.
This can be used to detect bacteria in the urine. A sample of midstream urine is incubated for 1-2 days with an appropriate medium to allow for bacterial growth. If any bacteria or fungi are present, there will be colony growth that will be studied based on size, form and color. Often urine cultures are used to test for a UTI then appropriate antibiotics are prescribed for its management.