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Source: COVID-19 Herbs - Gingko Biloba  Jul 24, 2022  5 months ago
BREAKING! Gingko Biloba Emerging As Potential Herb To Treat COVID-19 Due To Its Antiviral And Anti-Inflammatory Properties
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BREAKING! Gingko Biloba Emerging As Potential Herb To Treat COVID-19 Due To Its Antiviral And Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Source: COVID-19 Herbs - Gingko Biloba  Jul 24, 2022  5 months ago
COVID-19 Herbs: A number of new emerging studies and also clinical trials underway are indicating that the herbal extracts of Gingko Biloba are an ideal candidate to be used as adjuvants in the treatment of COVID-19 due its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties.


 
An early study reported by Thailand Medical News in 2021 by researchers from Pharmacy College, University of Basra-Iraq provided published evidence of the potential of Ginkgo Biloba in the treatment of could influenza and SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infections. That first study was published in the peer reviewed Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/jbcpp-2020-0310/html
 
Unknown to many, Ginkgolic acid (GA) an important phytochemical found in Gingko Biloba can function as an antiviral by inhibiting the fusion and synthesis of viral proteins.
 
Ginkgolic acid (GA) is able to inhibit the Herpes Simplex Virus type1 (HSV-1), genome replication in Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the infections of the Zika Virus (ZIKV). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32179788/
 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33435520/
 
It is also able to inhibits the wide spectrum of fusion by inhibiting the three types of proteins that have been linked to induced fusion as seen in Influenza A Virus [IAV], Epstein Barr Virus [EBV], HIV and Ebola Virus [EBOV]).
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/3/5137
 
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11418-012-0725-0
 
https://medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/883261
 
https://ursa.mercer.edu/handle/10898/12425
 
The secondary mechanism of GA targeting inhibition of the RNA or DNA and protein synthesis in virus, have been related to its strong effects, even afterward the beginning of the infection, therefore, it potentially treats the acute viral contaminations like (Measles and COVID-19).
 
Another past study has shown that Ginko Biloba is able to inhibit the coronavirus strain 229E infection of human epithelial lung cells. https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/10/980
 
Ginkgo Biloba can also reduce the risk of infection by several mechanisms; these mechanisms involve Ginkgo Biloba containing quercetin and other constituents, which have anti-inflammatory and immune modulator effects by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1869815/
 
s/pii/S0378874104002673">https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378874104002673
 
Cytokines cause inflammation which have been induced the injuries in lung lining. Some observational studies confirmed that Ginkgo Biloba reduced the risk of asthma, sepsis and another respiratory disease as well as it reduced the risk of cigarette smoking on respiratory symptoms.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0171298513000934
 
https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706246
 
https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/chem.200305473
 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1094553909000340
 
A new COVID-19 Herbs study by researchers from Florida Polytechnic University-USA, University of Baghdad-Iraq, Poznan University of Medical Sciences-Poland and Damanhour University and the Damanhour-Egypt has also showed that Gingko Biloba can be used to treat COVID-19 severity.
 
SARS-CoV-2 infections are linked with inflammatory disorders and the development of oxidative stress in extreme cases. Therefore, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs may alleviate these complications. Ginkgo biloba L. folium extract (EGb) is a herbal medicine containing various active constituents.
 
The study review aimed to provide a critical discussion on the potential role of EGb in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The antiviral effect of EGb is mediated by different mechanisms, including blocking SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease that provides trans-variant effectiveness.
 
The study found that EGb moreover impedes the development of pulmonary inflammatory disorders through the diminution of neutrophil elastase activity, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis. Thus, EGb can attenuate the acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19.
 
The study findings concluded that EGb offers the potential of being used as adjuvant antiviral and symptomatic therapy. Nanosystems enabling targeted delivery, personalization, and booster of effects provide the opportunity for the use of EGb in modern phytotherapy.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Archiv der Pharmazie. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ardp.202200188
 
Numerous past studies have highlighted the broad‐spectrum antiviral activity of EGb and its impact on viral life cycle stages, such as viral binding, viral entry, expression of proteins, as well as assembly and release of proteins.
 
Importantly, this antiviral activity is mainly observed under the cytotoxic threshold. EGb is also known to have an inhibitory effect against influenza A and B viruses via disruption of the hemagglutinin (HA) to the host cells.
 
The study team noted that the transmissibility of the influenza A virus depends on the interactions between HA and neuraminidase (NA) with sialic acid present in the cell surface receptor.
 
Ginkgetin, another natural phytochemical ie a biflavone isolated from GB, can effectively block the sialidase activity of the influenza virus, thus preventing viral adsorption on the host's cell surface. Furthermore, EGb has been found to have a substantial antiviral effect against the H3N2 influenza virus as well as the hepatitis B virus.
 
Interestingly, the antiviral effect of GB is reported to be due to the disruption of viral fusion and the protective effect induced by GB on the host cells by improving its stability and reducing its permeability.
 
Furthermore, studies showed that isorhamnetin, a flavonoid present in EGb, can inhibit NA and HA found in the H1N1 virus. This flavonoid also reduced autophagy induced by a viral infection, production of reactive oxygen species, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.
 
It was also found that EGb and its components have also displayed anti-inflammatory effects via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various studies have noted that biflavones present in EGb, such as ginkgetin, significantly reduce the abnormal expression of Akt and p38 pathways in the basal epithelial cells.
 
Also, biflavones were found to suppress the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of respiratory tract mucin, which could lead to mucociliary clearance failure.
 
Gingko Biloba was also found to reduce the inflammation of the airway in asthmatic patients by decreasing the infiltration of the inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes and eosinophils. It also suppressed the activity of protein kinase alpha (PKC‐α) of lymphocytes, thus preventing the secretion of interleukin 5 (IL-5) in the epithelial cells of the respiratory system.
 
Additionally, a diterpene trilactone of GB called ginkgolide B also reduced the inflammatory reactions incident in the airway of patients who have asthma by reducing the secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF).
 
To date, evidence shows that the 3‐chymotrypsin‐like protease (3CLpro) enzyme plays a crucial role in SARS-CoV-2 replication and is considered an effective target against SARS-CoV-2.
 
GA and a bioflavone called sciadopitysin present in EGb can sufficiently block 3CLpro. Moreover, glycosylated flavonoids found in EGb also display inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 replication by suppressing the function of 3CLpro.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33894315/
 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33640032/
 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33057452/
 
The study team also noted that a glycosylated derivative of kaempferol present in EGb has one of the highest binding energies to 3CLpro in SARS-CoV-2. Kaempferol inhibited the 3CLpro by exerting modularity effects on the extracellular as well as intercellular signaling pathways.   https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/smsj/article/view/31997
 
Also, the papain‐like protease (PLpro) was also inhibited by quercetin, the primary component of the EGb flavonoids. This inhibition led to the suppression of SARS-CoV-2 replication through the inhibition of both PLpro and CLpro, which further resulted in the mitigation of coagulopathy, hyperinflammatory reactions as well as prothrombotic conditions. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33034398/
 
Furthermore, the channel blocking activity of quercetin and kaempferol inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein, thus reducing viral activity and proliferation. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34305855/
 
https://www.apjtb.org/article.asp?issn=2221-1691;year=2021;volume=11;issue=8;spage=327;epage=334;aulast=Khazdair
 
Many past studies have highlighted the important role of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in worsening bronchial inflammatory reactions as well as the progression of acute lung injury (ALI) in patients experiencing severe COVID-19.
 
Ginkgetin, another phytochemical constituent of Gingko Biloba effectively inhibits leukotriene and prostaglandin pathways as a result of the reduction in phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. Altogether, this indicated that EGb showed great potential as a therapeutic approach against acute lung injury or ALI. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16327145/
 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19118503/
 
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30945705/
 
The study findings showed that GB preparations could serve as effective potential candidates in the management of COVID-19 and its disease severity.
 
Numerous clinical trials underway are starting to show early positive results of using Gingko Biloba extracts to treat COVID-19 including with the new Omicron variants and the clinical results are expected to be published soon.

Thailand Medical News would like to add that when attempting to use Gingkok Biloba for health benefits, do not take the herb as supplements in capsules or tablet forms containing the dried powdered versions, rather use newly made infusions of the actual fresh herbs. Do not also use any phytochemicals in bottled liquid forms as they lack any bioactiveness.
 
For the latest on COVID-19 Herbs, keep on logging to Thailand Medical News.
 

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