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In the United States, 50,000 people are infected with HIV every single year and current estimates suggests that around 1.1 million individuals in the US and 34 million globally are living with HIV infection.
In the US, the responsibility for HIV research mainly lies with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the world's largest public funder of HIV and AIDS research. The NIH supports and conducts basic, clinical and translational medical research to explore the causes, treatment approaches, and possible cures for both common and rare diseases.
Scientists supported by NIH are focused on investigating the pathogenesis of HIV, developing new HIV/AIDS therapies and developing methods for HIV prevention.
HIV and AIDS research is conducted across many of the agency's 27 institutes and centers, with one of the main ones being the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). This institute is dedicated to research aimed at bringing HIV and AIDS to an end.
Through the research conducted at their laboratories and clinics as well as their clinical trial sites, medical centers and universities around the world, NIAID is endeavouring to understand the pathology of HIV, develop tools to prevent infection, and develop more effective HIV treatments and eventually find a cure.
NIAID supports a basic research program that investigates the basic biology of HIV, the body's immune response to infection, and potential approaches to prevention and treatment. The major areas of this basic research program are described in further detail below.
The NIAID supports a number of investigations into HIV pathogenesis across a range of areas.
Its major goals include:
New treatment strategies are needed to help improve the outcomes of therapy for individuals with HIV. The key goals include:
Finding a cure for HIV and AIDS is a top priority for NIAID. A large number of investigations the NIAID supports involve ways of determining how HIV reservoirs are created and then maintained, as well as how these reservoirs can be controlled or eliminated.
The main goals of these investigations are: