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  Oct 18, 2018

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

Tumor lysis syndrome represents a potentially fatal complication of cancer treatment that is usually seen in patients with rapidly growing, extensive and chemosensitive malignant tumors. This clinical entity is seen as a result of prompt destruction of malignant cells, followed by the instant release of intracellular proteins, ions and metabolites into the extracellular space.

Even though tumor lysis syndrome usually occurs in patients with high-grade hematological malignant diseases, there were reports of cases in a plethora of other hematological malignancies including Hodgkin’s disease, low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and fast-growing testicular cancer.

As early recognition of individuals at high risk for acute tumor lysis syndrome enables early introduction of prophylactic measures that can even prevent fatal outcomes, it is pivotal to accurately identify clinical and laboratory traits, as well as signs and symptoms of this life-threatening condition.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Tumor lysis syndrome usually follows treatment of malignancies with cytotoxic therapy, although it can also occur spontaneously in patients with highly proliferative tumors. It is actually considered the most frequent disease-related emer