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The treatment of hyponatremia is aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the condition and replenishing the blood sodium levels, without causing the blood to become too dilute.
Depletional hyponatremia refers to reduced levels of fluid and salt, as seen in cases of gastrointestinal loss due to recurrent vomiting or diarrhea, for example. A hyponatremic state can also be caused by blood becoming too dilute (dilutional hyponatreamia). This can be caused by the administration or intake of too much fluid. Another cause is the excessive release of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland, referred to as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).