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Laparoscopic surgery or keyhole surgery is minimally invasive surgery that is associated with several advantages over traditional open surgery.
In an open procedure, one large abdominal incision is made to expose the tissues and structures inside for examination and surgery. In a laparoscopic procedure on the other hand, only a small incision of up to 1.5 cm in length is made in the abdomen, usually around the belly button area. The abdomen is then inflated with carbon dioxide to expand the abdominal walls and give the surgeon a clear view of the structures inside, as well as providing them with room to work. A laparoscope is inserted through the incision and used to examine the organs and tissues inside the abdomen.
If necessary, further small incisions can be made to provide access for other small instruments that can then be threaded through to the site of operation so that damaged tissue can be removed or a biopsy taken, for example. Once the operation is finished, the carbon dioxide is expelled from the abdomen and the incisions are closed using stitches.
Some of the advantages of this procedure over open surgery are described below: